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  • Diagnostic Errors in Fetal Echocardiography and the Effect on Neonatal Management: Ten-Year Experience from a Middle-Income Country
  • Abstract Introduction: Fetal echocardiogram allows early detection of critical congenital heart disease leading to a better outcome. However, data from lowerand middle-income countries is scarce. This study aims to evaluate the diagnostic error of fetal echocardiography and its impact on planned neonatal management. Methods and material: This retrospective observational cohort study includes all high-risk pregnant mothers who had fetal echocardiograms from 2008 to 2017. Fetal and postnatal echocardiograms were compared, while the diagnostic errors were categorized into false positive, false negative, and discrepant diagnoses. The impact of the diagnostic error on planned neonatal management and the long-term outcome was determined by…
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  • Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Renal Dysfunction in Patients with Single Ventricle Congenital Heart Disease after Fontan Palliation
  • Abstract Objectives: The Fontan operation has increased survival in patients with single-ventricle congenital heart defects. However, Fontan survivors are at risk of other organ dysfunctions, such as renal dysfunction (RD). The objectives of this study are to assess the prevalence of and potential risk factors for RD among Fontan survivors. Design, setting, and patients: We performed a two-center, cross-sectional study that included Fontan survivors evaluated in outpatient-clinics for routine follow up between 01/08-12/16. Outcome measures: The primary outcome was the presence of RD defined by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of <90 ml/min/1.73 m2 derived using the serum creatinine-based Full Age…
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  • Longitudinal Health-Related Quality of Life Assessment in Children with Congenital Heart Disease
  • Abstract Objective: Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) has become an important outcome measure for patients with congenital heart disease (CHD). The aim of this study was to evaluate the natural course of HRQoL from longitudinal assessment in children with CHD. Patients and Methods: From July 2014 to February 2020 this longitudinal study recruited 317 children with CHD (113 girls, 35.6%) aged 6 to 18 years (11.6 ± 2.9 years). HRQoL was assessed with the generic, self-reported and age-adapted KINDL® questionnaire. During a mean follow-up period of 2.2 ± 1.3 years, 195 patients had one HRQoL reassessment, 70 two, 40 three and…
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  • A Single Institution’s Experience with Later Extracardiac Fontan Procedure Off Bypass
  • Abstract Purpose: To summarize Fontan procedure data from our institution, UCSF Benioff Children’s Hospital Oakland, in order to better understand outcomes of our surgical and post-operative care. Basic Procedures: This is a retrospective cross-sectional chart review summarizing characteristics and outcomes of patients who underwent the Fontan procedure at our institution between 2005 and 2016. Main Findings: Sixty-five Fontan procedures were performed at our institution between 2005 and 2016, all of which were extracardiac Fontan procedures performed by the same surgical team. At the time of Fontan procedure, the mean patient age was 56.4 ± 18.7 months and mean weight was 16.6…
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  • Positional Hypoxemia from Persistent Left Superior Vena Cava Draining to the Left Atrium
  • Abstract Persistent left superior vena cava (PLSVC) is a relatively common congenital venous anomaly that typically drains into the coronary sinus without hemodynamic significance. Rarely a PLSVC drains directly into the left atrium, forming a right-to-left shunt that can result in hypoxemia and potential paradoxical embolism. We present the case of a 2-year-old medically complex child on chronic mechanical ventilation with eventual diagnosis of episodic hypoxemia due to a PLSVC draining into the left atrium with position-dependent venous flow. The lesion was identified with contrast echocardiography and cardiac MRI. Subsequent occlusion with a vascular plug resulted in resolution of the child’s…
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  • Emotional and Behavioral Problems of Left-Behind Children in Impoverished Rural China: A Comparative Cross-Sectional Study of First Grade Junior High School
  • Abstract Objective: To investigate the prevalence of emotional and behavioral problems and related factors of left-behind children in impoverished rural China (mainly in the first grade of junior high school). Methods: A cross-sectional survey of rural households in 27 poverty-stricken counties in 12 provinces across China was conducted using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Results: The prevalence of emotional and behavioral problems in left-behind children was 11.7%, and that of non-left-behind children was 8.9%. There was statistical difference between the two groups (P < 0.01). There are no differences between the two groups in terms of the various factors of…
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  • Flesh Color Diversity of Sweet Potato: An Overview of the Composition, Functions, Biosynthesis, and Gene Regulation of the Major Pigments
  • Abstract Sweet potato is a multifunctional root crop and a source of food with many essential nutrients and bioactive compounds. Variations in the flesh color of the diverse sweet potato varieties are attributed to the different phytochemicals and natural pigments they produce. Among them, carotenoids and anthocyanins are the main pigments known for their antioxidant properties which provide a host of health benefits, hence, regarded as a major component of the human diet. In this review, we provide an overview of the major pigments in sweet potato with much emphasis on their biosynthesis, functions, and regulatory control. Moreover, current findings on…
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  • Variation for Resistance to Alternaria tenuissima and Potential Structural Mechanism among Different Cultivars of Chrysanthemum morifolium
  • Abstract Black spot disease, caused by the necrotrophic fungus Alternaria tenuissima (Fr.) Wiltsh (A. tenuissima), is considered a highly destructive disease of Chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.). A set of 17 accessions of commercial chrysanthemum cultivars were evaluated for resistance to A. tenuissima by seedling artificial inoculation. It was found that the reaction of the accessions to artificial inoculation ranged from resistant to highly susceptible. Five varieties of chrysanthemum (‘Zhongshan Taogui’, ‘Jinba’, ‘Zhongshan Jinguan’, ‘Jinling Wanhuang’ and ‘Jinling Yangguang’) were resistant; two varieties of chrysanthemum (‘Zhongshan Xinggui’ and ‘Zhongshan Jinkui’) were moderately resistant; and others were susceptible to various degrees, four varieties…
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  • Identification and Genetic Analysis of a Novel Allelic Variation of Brittle-1 with Endosperm Mutant in Maize
  • Abstract Endosperm mutants are critical to the studies on both starch synthesis and metabolism and genetic improvement of starch quality in maize. In the present study, a novel maize endosperm mutant A0178 of natural variation was used as the experimental material and identified and then characterized. Through phenotypic identification, genetic analysis, main ingredients measurement and embryo rescue, development of genetic mapping population from A0178, the endosperm mutant gene was located. The results showed that the mutant exhibited extremely low germination ability as attributed to the inhibited embryo development, and amounts of sugars were accumulated in the mutant seeds and more sugars…
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  • Reference Gene Selection for qRT-PCR Normalization in Iris germanica L.
  • Abstract Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is an effective and widely used method to analyze expression patterns of target genes. Selection of stable reference genes is a prerequisite for accurate normalization of target gene expression by qRT-PCR. In Iris germanica L., no studies have yet been published regarding the evaluation of potential reference genes. In this study, nine candidate reference genes were assessed at different flower developmental stages and in different tissues by four different algorithms (GeNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, and RefFinder). The results revealed that ACT11 (Actin 11) and EF1α (Elongation factor 1 alpha) were the most stable reference genes in different…
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