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  • Optimal Bioprinting Parameters and Experimental Investigation of Acellular Dermal Matrix Scaffold
  • Abstract Acellular dermal matrix (ADM) as a biomaterial is currently believed to be promising tissue repair improvement. With the development of tissue engineering, ADM is increasingly used as biological scaffolds. We explored the feasibility and performance of ADM biological scaffolds that fabricated by 3D printing. This paper presented our study on the printability of 3D printed ADM scaffolds, with a focus on identifying the influence of printing parameters/conditions on printability. To characterize the printability, we examined the fiber morphology, pore size, strand diameter, and mechanical property of the printed scaffolds. Our results revealed that the printability could be affected by a…
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  • Slow Pyrolysis of Sugarcane Bagasse for the Production of Char and the Potential of Its By-Product for Wood Protection
  • Abstract Sugarcane bagasse was pyrolyzed using a laboratory fixed bed reactor to produce char and its by-product (pyrolysis liquid). The pyrolysis experiments were carried out using different temperatures (400°C and 500°C), heating rate (1 °C/min and 10 °C/min), and holding time (30 min and 60 min). Char was characterized according to its thermal properties, while the pyrolysis liquid was tested for its anti-fungal and anti-termite activities. Pyrolysis temperature and heating rate had a significant influence on the char properties and the yield of char and pyrolysis liquid, where a high-quality char and high yield of pyrolysis liquid can be obtained at…
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  • Water Repellency of Cellulosic Fibrous Mats Impregnated with Organic Solutions Based on Recycled Polystyrene
  • Abstract Recycled polystyrene in combination with paraffin wax, alkyd resin, and gum rosin were used as components in formulations to investigate their water repellency when applied to cellulosic filter paper substrates. Polystyrene was used in concentration of 5, 10, 15 and 20%, alkyd resin and gum rosin of 5% each and paraffin wax of 0.5%. Totally, twenty four water repellent solutions were prepared. Water repellency was evaluated in terms of water absorption of the cellulosic fibrous mats. The relations between retention of solid substances of the formulations and grammage and water absorption of filter paper samples were also determined. The results…
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  • The Dynamic Experiment on Treating Acid Mine Drainage with Iron Scrap and Sulfate Reducing Bacteria Using Biomass Materials as Carbon Source
  • Abstract

    The study is aimed at the problem of high content of Cr6+, Cr3+ and SO42– is high and low pH value in acid mine drainage (AMD). Moreover, treatment of AMD by sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) requires the addition of carbon source, while the treating effectiveness is not good enough on its own. The sugarcane slag, the corn cob and the sunflower straw were selected as the SRB carbon source cooperating with iron scrap to construct the dynamic columns 1, 2 and 3. The mechanism of removing Cr6+, Cr3+, SO42– and H+ and the regularity of sustained…

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  • Preliminary Optimization and Kinetics of SnCl2-HCl Catalyzed Hydrothermal Conversion of Microcrystalline Cellulose to Levulinic Acid
  • Abstract Levulinic acid (LA) is a platform biorefinery chemical from biomass which can be converted to green solvents, plasticizers, polymer precursors, bio-based cleaning agents, fuels and fuel additives. This study assessed the potential of SnCl2-based mixed acid systems as catalyst in the hydrothermal conversion of microcrystalline cellulose to levulinic acid. Maximum LA yield of 36.2 mol% was achieved using 0.2 M SnCl2 concentration at test conditions of 3 h, 180°C and 1% w/v cellulose loading. To reduce precipitate formation and further improve LA yield, the strategy employed was to combine SnCl2 (a Lewis acid) with conventional mineral acids (Bronsted acids). Evaluation…
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  • Prediction and Analysis of Surface Quality of Northeast China Ash Wood during Water-Jet Assisted CO Laser Cutting
  • Abstract

    As a natural and environmentally friendly renewable material, Northeast China ash wood (NCAW) (Fraxinus mandshurica Rupr.) was cut by water-jet assisted CO2 laser (WACL), the surface quality was evaluated by surface roughness of cut section. The surface roughness was measured by three-dimensional (3D) profilometry. Furthermore, the micromorphology of machined surface was observed by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). Carbon content changes of machined surface were measured by energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). A relationship between surface roughness and cutting parameters was established using response surface methodology (RSM). It is concluded that the cutting speed, laser power and water pressure played an important…

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  • The Effects of Stacking Sequence on Dynamic Mechanical Properties and Thermal Degradation of Kenaf/Jute Hybrid Composites
  • Abstract This research focused on the dynamic mechanical and thermal properties of woven mat jute/kenaf/jute (J/K/J) and kenaf/jute/kenaf (K/J/K) hybrid composites. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and Thermo-gravimetric Analysis (TGA) were used to study the effect of layering sequence on the thermal properties of kenaf/jute hybrid composites. The DMA results; it was found that the differences in the stacking sequence between the kenaf/jute composites do not affect their storage modulus, loss modulus and damping factor. From the TGA and DMA results, it has been shown that stacking sequence has given positive effect to the kenaf/jute hybrid composite compared to pure epoxy composite.…
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  • Cooperative Channel Assignment for VANETs Based on Dual Reinforcement Learning
  • Abstract Dynamic channel assignment (DCA) is significant for extending vehicular ad hoc network (VANET) capacity and mitigating congestion. However, the un-known global state information and the lack of centralized control make channel assignment performances a challenging task in a distributed vehicular direct communication scenario. In our preliminary field test for communication under V2X scenario, we find that the existing DCA technology cannot fully meet the communication performance requirements of VANET. In order to improve the communication performance, we firstly demonstrate the feasibility and potential of reinforcement learning (RL) method in joint channel selection decision and access fallback adaptation design in this…
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  • Estimation of Quaternion Motion for GPS-Based Attitude Determination Using the Extended Kalman Filter
  • Abstract In this paper, the Global Positioning System (GPS) interferometer provides the preliminarily computed quaternions, which are then employed as the measurement of the extended Kalman filter (EKF) for the attitude determination system. The estimated quaternion elements from the EKF output with noticeably improved precision can be converted to the Euler angles for navigation applications. The aim of the study is twofold. Firstly, the GPS-based computed quaternion vector is utilized to avoid the singularity problem. Secondly, the quaternion estimator based on the EKF is adopted to improve the estimation accuracy. Determination of the unknown baseline vector between the antennas sits at…
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  • A Parallel Approach to Discords Discovery in Massive Time Series Data
  • Abstract A discord is a refinement of the concept of an anomalous subsequence of a time series. Being one of the topical issues of time series mining, discords discovery is applied in a wide range of real-world areas (medicine, astronomy, economics, climate modeling, predictive maintenance, energy consumption, etc.). In this article, we propose a novel parallel algorithm for discords discovery on high-performance cluster with nodes based on many-core accelerators in the case when time series cannot fit in the main memory. We assumed that the time series is partitioned across the cluster nodes and achieved parallelization among the cluster nodes as…
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