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  • Open Access


    Facial Expression Recognition Using Enhanced Convolution Neural Network with Attention Mechanism

    K. Prabhu1,*, S. SathishKumar2, M. Sivachitra3, S. Dineshkumar2, P. Sathiyabama4

    Computer Systems Science and Engineering, Vol.41, No.1, pp. 415-426, 2022, DOI:10.32604/csse.2022.019749

    Abstract Facial Expression Recognition (FER) has been an interesting area of research in places where there is human-computer interaction. Human psychology, emotions and behaviors can be analyzed in FER. Classifiers used in FER have been perfect on normal faces but have been found to be constrained in occluded faces. Recently, Deep Learning Techniques (DLT) have gained popularity in applications of real-world problems including recognition of human emotions. The human face reflects emotional states and human intentions. An expression is the most natural and powerful way of communicating non-verbally. Systems which form communications between the two are termed Human Machine Interaction (HMI)… More >

  • Open Access


    Extensive Study of Cloud Computing Technologies, Threats and Solutions Prospective

    Mwaffaq Abu-Alhaija1, Nidal M. Turab1,*, AbdelRahman Hamza2

    Computer Systems Science and Engineering, Vol.41, No.1, pp. 225-240, 2022, DOI:10.32604/csse.2022.019547

    Abstract Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) provides logical separation between data, network, applications and machines from the physical constrains of real machines. IaaS is one of the basis of cloud virtualization. Recently, security issues are also gradually emerging with virtualization of cloud computing. Different security aspects of cloud virtualization will be explored in this research paper, security recognizing potential threats or attacks that exploit these vulnerabilities, and what security measures are used to alleviate such threats. In addition, a discussion of general security requirements and the existing security schemes is also provided. As shown in this paper, different components of virtualization… More >

  • Open Access


    Novel Power-Aware Optimization Methodology and Efficient Task Scheduling Algorithm

    K. Sathis Kumar1,*, K. Paramasivam2

    Computer Systems Science and Engineering, Vol.41, No.1, pp. 209-224, 2022, DOI:10.32604/csse.2022.019531

    Abstract The performance of central processing units (CPUs) can be enhanced by integrating multiple cores into a single chip. Cpu performance can be improved by allocating the tasks using intelligent strategy. If Small tasks wait for long time or executes for long time, then CPU consumes more power. Thus, the amount of power consumed by CPUs can be reduced without increasing the frequency. Lines are used to connect cores, which are organized together to form a network called network on chips (NOCs). NOCs are mainly used in the design of processors. However, its performance can still be enhanced by reducing power… More >

  • Open Access


    Detection of Fuel Adulteration Using Wave Optical with Machine Learning Algorithms

    S. Dilip Kumar1,*, T. V. Sivasubramonia Pillai2

    Computer Systems Science and Engineering, Vol.41, No.1, pp. 19-33, 2022, DOI:10.32604/csse.2022.019366

    Abstract Fuel is a very important factor and has considerable influence on the air quality in the environment, which is the heart of the world. The increase of vehicles in lived-in areas results in greater emission of carbon particles in the environment. Adulterated fuel causes more contaminated particles to mix with breathing air and becomes the main source of dangerous pollution. Adulteration is the mixing of foreign substances in fuel, which damages vehicles and causes more health problems in living beings such as humans, birds, aquatic life, and even water resources by emitting high levels of hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides, and carbon… More >

  • Open Access


    A Survey on Technologies and Challenges of LTE-U

    Tong Gan1, Shi-You Wang1, Qiang Ma1, Yi-Dong Jia2,*, Yun-Yun Ma3

    Computer Systems Science and Engineering, Vol.41, No.1, pp. 321-337, 2022, DOI:10.32604/csse.2022.019244

    Abstract The rapid growth of mobile data traffic has caused great pressure on the limited spectrum resources, and there must be some better methods to deal with this problem. The innovative technology of Long-Term Evolution (LTE) using the unlicensed spectrum, known as LTE-Unlicensed (LTE-U), has been proposed to effectively alleviate the shortage of authorized band resources. LTE-U has explored a lot of potential capacity in mobile communication systems with limited authorized spectrum resources, and improved the spectrum utilization of unauthorized frequency bands. However, LTE-U is still facing challenges in its application. In this paper, we summarize the key features of LTE-U… More >

  • Open Access


    Obtaining Crisp Priorities for Triangular and Trapezoidal Fuzzy Judgments

    Raman Kumar Goyal1, Jaskirat Singh1, Nidhi Kalra1, Anshu Parashar1,*, Gagan Singla2, Sakshi Kaushal2

    Computer Systems Science and Engineering, Vol.41, No.1, pp. 157-170, 2022, DOI:10.32604/csse.2022.018962

    Abstract This paper proposes anoptimal fuzzy-based model for obtaining crisp priorities for Fuzzy-AHP comparison matrices. Crisp judgments cannot be given for real-life situations, as most of these include some level of fuzziness and complexity. In these situations, judgments are represented by the set of fuzzy numbers. Most of the fuzzy optimization models derive crisp priorities for judgments represented with Triangular Fuzzy Numbers (TFNs) only. They do not work for other types of Triangular Shaped Fuzzy Numbers (TSFNs) and Trapezoidal Fuzzy Numbers (TrFNs). To overcome this problem, a sum of squared error (SSE) based optimization model is proposed. Unlike some other methods,… More >

  • Open Access


    Cost Optimized Switching of Routing Protocol Scheme for IoT Applications

    Karunanithi Praveen kumar, Perumal Sivanesan*

    Computer Systems Science and Engineering, Vol.41, No.1, pp. 67-82, 2022, DOI:10.32604/csse.2022.018867

    Abstract In this work, we propose a context-aware switching of routing protocol scheme for specific application requirements of IoT in real-time using a software-defined networking controller in wireless sensor networks. The work planned has two stages i) Selection of suitable routing protocol (RP) for given IoT applications using higher cognitive process and ii) Deployment of the corresponding routing protocol. We use the supervised learning-regression method for classification of the routing protocol while considering the network parameters like stability, path delay, energy utilization, and throughput. The chosen routing protocol will be set in the sensor network using a software-defined networking controller in… More >

  • Open Access


    Correlation Analysis between Economic Growth and Environmental Quality

    Baiqing Zhou1, Na Li1,*, Duan Lu1, Jinyue Xia2

    Computer Systems Science and Engineering, Vol.41, No.1, pp. 127-140, 2022, DOI:10.32604/csse.2022.017750

    Abstract With the rapid development of the economy, China’s environment has been damaged severely, which has attracted much attention from scholars and the local government. The concept of green development has been an underlying trend since 2012, and it is of great significance to explore the relationship between economic growth and environmental quality. Huzhou is a prefecture-level city under the jurisdiction of Zhejiang Province, and it is one of the 27 cities in the central area of the Yangtze River Delta. In recent years, this city develops well not only in economic development but also in maintaining a green environment. In… More >

  • Open Access


    Nonlinear Identification and Control of Laser Welding Based on RBF Neural Networks

    Hongfei Wei1,*, Hui Zhao2, Xinlong Shi1, Shuang Liang3

    Computer Systems Science and Engineering, Vol.41, No.1, pp. 51-65, 2022, DOI:10.32604/csse.2022.017739

    Abstract A laser beam is a heat source with a high energy density; this technology has been rapidly developed and applied in the field of welding owing to its potential advantages, and supplements traditional welding techniques. An in-depth analysis of its operating process could establish a good foundation for its application in China. It is widely understood that the welding process is a highly nonlinear and multi-variable coupling process; it comprises a significant number of complex processes with random uncertain factors. Because of their nonlinear mapping and self-learning characteristics, artificial neural networks (ANNs) have certain advantages in comparison to traditional methods… More >

  • Open Access


    Solvability of the Nonlocal Inverse Parabolic Problem and Numerical Results

    M. J. Huntul1,*, Taki-Eddine Oussaeif2

    Computer Systems Science and Engineering, Vol.40, No.3, pp. 1109-1126, 2022, DOI:10.32604/csse.2022.020175

    Abstract In this paper, we consider the unique solvability of the inverse problem of determining the right-hand side of a parabolic equation whose leading coefficient depends on time variable under nonlocal integral overdetermination condition. We obtain sufficient conditions for the unique solvability of the inverse problem. The existence and uniqueness of the solution of the inverse parabolic problem upon the data are established using the fixed point theorem. This inverse problem appears extensively in the modelling of various phenomena in engineering and physics. For example, seismology, medicine, fusion welding, continuous casting, metallurgy, aircraft, oil and gas production during drilling and operation… More >

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