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  • Open Access


    Robust Image Watermarking Using LWT and Stochastic Gradient Firefly Algorithm

    Sachin Sharma1,*, Meena Malik2, Chander Prabha3, Amal Al-Rasheed4, Mona Alduailij4, Sultan Almakdi5

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.75, No.1, pp. 393-407, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2023.033536

    Abstract Watermarking of digital images is required in diversified applications ranging from medical imaging to commercial images used over the web. Usually, the copyright information is embossed over the image in the form of a logo at the corner or diagonal text in the background. However, this form of visible watermarking is not suitable for a large class of applications. In all such cases, a hidden watermark is embedded inside the original image as proof of ownership. A large number of techniques and algorithms are proposed by researchers for invisible watermarking. In this paper, we focus on issues that are critical… More >

  • Open Access


    LKAW: A Robust Watermarking Method Based on Large Kernel Convolution and Adaptive Weight Assignment

    Xiaorui Zhang1,2,3,*, Rui Jiang1, Wei Sun3,4, Aiguo Song5, Xindong Wei6, Ruohan Meng7

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.75, No.1, pp. 1-17, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2023.034748

    Abstract Robust watermarking requires finding invariant features under multiple attacks to ensure correct extraction. Deep learning has extremely powerful in extracting features, and watermarking algorithms based on deep learning have attracted widespread attention. Most existing methods use small kernel convolution to extract image features and embed the watermarking. However, the effective perception fields for small kernel convolution are extremely confined, so the pixels that each watermarking can affect are restricted, thus limiting the performance of the watermarking. To address these problems, we propose a watermarking network based on large kernel convolution and adaptive weight assignment for loss functions. It uses large-kernel… More >

  • Open Access


    Minimizing FWM Impact in DWDM ROF DP-DQPSK System for Optical

    Esra Ehsan*, Razali Ngah, Nurul Ashikin Binti Daud

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.75, No.1, pp. 1033-1050, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2023.034229

    Abstract The demonstration of a higher data rate transmission system was a major aspect to be considered by researchers in recent years. The most relevant aspect to be studied and analyzed is the need for a reliable system to handle nonlinear impairments and reduce them. Therefore, this paper examines the influence of Four-Wave Mixing (FWM) impairment on the proposed high data rate Dual polarization–Differential Quadrature phase shift keying (DP-DQPSK) system using the Optisystem software. In the beginning, the impact of varied input power on the proposed system’s performance was evaluated in terms of QF and BER metrics. More power is used… More >

  • Open Access


    Zero-Index Metamaterial Superstrates UWB Antenna for Microwave Imaging Detection

    Mohd Aminudin Jamlos1,*, Nur Amirah Othman1, Wan Azani Mustafa2, Mohd Faizal Jamlos3, Mohamad Nur Khairul Hafizi Rohani2

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.75, No.1, pp. 277-292, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2023.032840

    Abstract Metamaterials (MTM) can enhance the properties of microwaves and also exceed some limitations of devices used in technical practice. Note that the antenna is the element for realizing a microwave imaging (MWI) system since it is where signal transmission and absorption occur. Ultra-Wideband (UWB) antenna superstrates with MTM elements to ensure the signal transmitted from the antenna reaches the tumor and is absorbed by the same antenna. The lack of conventional head imaging techniques, for instance, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Computerized Tomography (CT)-scan, has been demonstrated in the paper focusing on the point of failure of these techniques for… More >

  • Open Access


    A 37 GHz Millimeter-Wave Antenna Array for 5G Communication Terminals

    Jalal Khan1, Sadiq Ullah1,*, Usman Ali1, Ladislau Matekovits2,3,4, Farooq Ahmad Tahir5, Muhammad Inam Abbasi6

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.75, No.1, pp. 1317-1330, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2023.029879

    Abstract This work presents, design and specific absorption rate (SAR) analysis of a 37 GHz antenna, for 5th Generation (5G) applications. The proposed antenna comprises of 4-elements of rectangular patch and an even distribution. The radiating element is composed of copper material supported by Rogers RT5880 substrate of thickness, 0.254 mm, dielectric constant (εr), 2.2, and loss tangent, 0.0009. The 4-elements array antenna is compact in size with a dimension of 8 mm × 20 mm in length and width. The radiating patch is excited with a 50 ohms connector i.e., K-type. The antenna resonates in the frequency band of 37 GHz, that covers the 5G applications. The antenna… More >

  • Open Access


    Assessment of the Elastic-Wave Well Treatment in Oil-Bearing Clastic and Carbonate Reservoirs

    Vladimir Poplygin1,*, Chengzhi Qi2, Mikhail Guzev3, Evgenii Kozhevnikov1, Artem Kunitskikh1, Evgenii Riabokon1, Mikhail Turbakov1

    FDMP-Fluid Dynamics & Materials Processing, Vol.19, No.6, pp. 1495-1505, 2023, DOI:10.32604/fdmp.2023.022335

    Abstract A set of techniques for well treatment aimed to enhance oil recovery are considered in the present study. These are based on the application of elastic waves of various types (dilation-wave, vibro-wave, or other acoustically induced effects). In such a context, a new technique is proposed to predict the effectiveness of the elastic-wave well treatment using the rank distribution according to Zipf’s law. It is revealed that, when the results of elastic wave well treatments are analyzed, groups of wells exploiting various geological deposits can differ in terms of their slope coefficients and free members. As the slope coefficient increases,… More >

  • Open Access


    Improved Beam Steering Method Using OAM Waves

    Nidal Qasem*, Ahmad Alamayreh

    Computer Systems Science and Engineering, Vol.46, No.1, pp. 417-431, 2023, DOI:10.32604/csse.2023.035603

    Abstract Orbital Angular Momentum (OAM) is an intrinsic feature of electromagnetic waves which has recently found many applications in several areas in radio and optics. In this paper, we use OAM wave characteristics to present a simple method for beam steering over both elevation and azimuth planes. The design overcomes some limitations of traditional steering methods, such as limited dynamic range of steering, the design complexity, bulky size of the steering structure, the limited bandwidth of operation, and low gain. Based on OAM wave characteristics, the proposed steering method avoids design complexities by adopting a simple method for generating the OAM-carrying… More >

  • Open Access


    Hybrid Watermarking and Encryption Techniques for Securing Medical Images

    Amel Ali Alhussan1,*, Hanaa A. Abdallah2, Sara Alsodairi2, Abdelhamied A. Ateya3

    Computer Systems Science and Engineering, Vol.46, No.1, pp. 403-416, 2023, DOI:10.32604/csse.2023.035048

    Abstract Securing medical data while transmission on the network is required because it is sensitive and life-dependent data. Many methods are used for protection, such as Steganography, Digital Signature, Cryptography, and Watermarking. This paper introduces a novel robust algorithm that combines discrete wavelet transform (DWT), discrete cosine transform (DCT), and singular value decomposition (SVD) digital image-watermarking algorithms. The host image is decomposed using a two-dimensional DWT (2D-DWT) to approximate low-frequency sub-bands in the embedding process. Then the sub-band low-high (LH) is decomposed using 2D-DWT to four new sub-bands. The resulting sub-band low-high (LH1) is decomposed using 2D-DWT to four new sub-bands.… More >

  • Open Access


    Anomaly Detection Based on Discrete Wavelet Transformation for Insider Threat Classification

    Dong-Wook Kim1, Gun-Yoon Shin1, Myung-Mook Han2,*

    Computer Systems Science and Engineering, Vol.46, No.1, pp. 153-164, 2023, DOI:10.32604/csse.2023.034589

    Abstract Unlike external attacks, insider threats arise from legitimate users who belong to the organization. These individuals may be a potential threat for hostile behavior depending on their motives. For insider detection, many intrusion detection systems learn and prevent known scenarios, but because malicious behavior has similar patterns to normal behavior, in reality, these systems can be evaded. Furthermore, because insider threats share a feature space similar to normal behavior, identifying them by detecting anomalies has limitations. This study proposes an improved anomaly detection methodology for insider threats that occur in cybersecurity in which a discrete wavelet transformation technique is applied… More >

  • Open Access


    Double Deep Q-Network Method for Energy Efficiency and Throughput in a UAV-Assisted Terrestrial Network

    Mohamed Amine Ouamri1,2, Reem Alkanhel3,*, Daljeet Singh4, El-sayed M. El-kenaway5, Sherif S. M. Ghoneim6

    Computer Systems Science and Engineering, Vol.46, No.1, pp. 73-92, 2023, DOI:10.32604/csse.2023.034461

    Abstract Increasing the coverage and capacity of cellular networks by deploying additional base stations is one of the fundamental objectives of fifth-generation (5G) networks. However, it leads to performance degradation and huge spectral consumption due to the massive densification of connected devices and simultaneous access demand. To meet these access conditions and improve Quality of Service, resource allocation (RA) should be carefully optimized. Traditionally, RA problems are nonconvex optimizations, which are performed using heuristic methods, such as genetic algorithm, particle swarm optimization, and simulated annealing. However, the application of these approaches remains computationally expensive and unattractive for dense cellular networks. Therefore,… More >

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