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  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Double Deep Q-Network Method for Energy Efficiency and Throughput in a UAV-Assisted Terrestrial Network

    Mohamed Amine Ouamri1,2, Reem Alkanhel3,*, Daljeet Singh4, El-sayed M. El-kenaway5, Sherif S. M. Ghoneim6

    Computer Systems Science and Engineering, Vol.46, No.1, pp. 73-92, 2023, DOI:10.32604/csse.2023.034461

    Abstract Increasing the coverage and capacity of cellular networks by deploying additional base stations is one of the fundamental objectives of fifth-generation (5G) networks. However, it leads to performance degradation and huge spectral consumption due to the massive densification of connected devices and simultaneous access demand. To meet these access conditions and improve Quality of Service, resource allocation (RA) should be carefully optimized. Traditionally, RA problems are nonconvex optimizations, which are performed using heuristic methods, such as genetic algorithm, particle swarm optimization, and simulated annealing. However, the application of these approaches remains computationally expensive and unattractive for dense cellular networks. Therefore,… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    A Metabolism-Related Gene Signature Predicts the Prognosis of Breast Cancer Patients: Combined Analysis of High-Throughput Sequencing and Gene Chip Data Sets

    Lei Hu1,2,#, Meng Chen2,3,#, Haiming Dai2,3,4, Hongzhi Wang2,3,4,*, Wulin Yang2,3,4,*

    Oncologie, Vol.24, No.4, pp. 803-822, 2022, DOI:10.32604/oncologie.2022.026419

    Abstract Background and Aim: Hundreds of consistently altered metabolic genes have been identified in breast cancer (BC), but their prognostic value remains to be explored. Therefore, we aimed to build a prediction model based on metabolism-related genes (MRGs) to guide BC prognosis. Methods: Current work focuses on constructing a novel MRGs signature to predict the prognosis of BC patients using MRGs derived from the Virtual Metabolic Human (VMH) database, and expression profiles and clinicopathological data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) databases. Results: The 3-MRGs-signature constructed by SERPINA1, QPRT and PXDNL was found to be an… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Reconfigurable Sensing Time in Cooperative Cognitive Network Using Machine Learning

    Noor Gul1,2, Saeed Ahmed1,3, Su Min Kim1, Muhammad Sajjad Khan4, Junsu Kim1,*

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.74, No.3, pp. 5209-5227, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2023.026945

    Abstract A cognitive radio network (CRN) intelligently utilizes the available spectral resources by sensing and learning from the radio environment to maximize spectrum utilization. In CRNs, the secondary users (SUs) opportunistically access the primary users (PUs) spectrum. Therefore, unambiguous detection of the PU channel occupancy is the most critical aspect of the operations of CRNs. Cooperative spectrum sensing (CSS) is rated as the best choice for making reliable sensing decisions. This paper employs machine-learning tools to sense the PU channels reliably in CSS. The sensing parameters are reconfigured to maximize the spectrum utilization while reducing sensing error and cost with improved… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Throughput Analysis of HARQ Scheme Based on Full-Duplex Two-Way AF SWIPT Relay

    Xiaoye Shi1,*, Fei Ding1,2, Haiting Zhu1, Zhaowei Zhang1, Lei Zhang1

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.74, No.3, pp. 4819-4830, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2023.018637

    Abstract The simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) relay system is one of the emerging technologies. Xiaomi Corporation and Motorola Inc. recently launched indoor wireless power transfer equipment is one of the most promising applications. To tap the potential of the system, hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) is introduced into the SWIPT relay system. Firstly, the time slot structure of HARQ scheme based on full duplex two-way amplify and forward (AF) SWIPT relay is given, and its retransmission status is analyzed. Secondly, the equivalent signal-to-noise ratio and outage probability of various states are calculated by approximate simplification. Thirdly, the energy… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Cooperative NOMA Based on OAM Transmission for Beyond 5G Applications

    Mohammad Alkhawatrah*

    Computer Systems Science and Engineering, Vol.45, No.2, pp. 1187-1197, 2023, DOI:10.32604/csse.2023.030699

    Abstract Cooperative non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) is heavily studied in the literature as a solution for 5G and beyond 5G applications. Cooperative NOMA transmits a superimposed version of all users’ messages simultaneously with the aid of a relay, after that, each user decodes its own message. Accordingly, NOMA is deemed as a spectral efficient technique. Another emerging technique exploits orbital angular momentum (OAM), where OAM is an attractive character of electromagnetic waves. OAM gathered a great deal of attention in recent years (similar to the case with NOMA) due to its ability to enhance electromagnetic spectrum exploitation, hence increasing the achieved… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Central Aggregator Intrusion Detection System for Denial of Service Attacks

    Sajjad Ahmad1, Imran Raza1, M. Hasan Jamal1, Sirojiddin Djuraev2, Soojung Hur3, Imran Ashraf3,*

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.74, No.2, pp. 2363-2377, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2023.032694

    Abstract Vehicle-to-grid technology is an emerging field that allows unused power from Electric Vehicles (EVs) to be used by the smart grid through the central aggregator. Since the central aggregator is connected to the smart grid through a wireless network, it is prone to cyber-attacks that can be detected and mitigated using an intrusion detection system. However, existing intrusion detection systems cannot be used in the vehicle-to-grid network because of the special requirements and characteristics of the vehicle-to-grid network. In this paper, the effect of denial-of-service attacks of malicious electric vehicles on the central aggregator of the vehicle-to-grid network is investigated… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Quantifying Solid Solution Strengthening in Nickel-Based Superalloys via High-Throughput Experiment and Machine Learning

    Zihang Li1,#, Zexin Wang1,#, Zi Wang2, Zijun Qin1, Feng Liu1, Liming Tan1,*, Xiaochao Jin3,*, Xueling Fan3, Lan Huang1

    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.135, No.2, pp. 1521-1538, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2022.021639

    Abstract Solid solution strengthening (SSS) is one of the main contributions to the desired tensile properties of nickel-based superalloys for turbine blades and disks. The value of SSS can be calculated by using Fleischer’s and Labusch’s theories, while the model parameters are incorporated without fitting to experimental data of complex alloys. In this work, four diffusion multiples consisting of multicomponent alloys and pure Ni are prepared and characterized. The composition and microhardness of single γ phase regions in samples are used to quantify the SSS. Then, Fleischer’s and Labusch’s theories are examined based on high-throughput experiments, respectively. The fitted solid solution… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Computational high-throughput screening and in vitro approaches identify CB-006-3; A novel PI3K-BRAFV600E dual targeted inhibitor against melanoma

    FAISAL HASSAN TOBEIGEI1, REEM M. GAHTANI2, AHMAD SHAIKH2, AMER AL ALI3, NADER KAMELI4,5, HOSSAM KAMLI2, PRASANNA RAJAGOPALAN2,6,*

    Oncology Research, Vol.29, No.5, pp. 305-318, 2021, DOI:10.32604/or.2022.025187

    Abstract Malignant melanoma is characterized by both genetic and molecular alterations that activate phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), and RAS/BRAF pathways. In this work, through diversity-based high-throughput virtual screening we identified a lead molecule that selectively targets PI3K and BRAFV600E kinases. Computational screening, Molecular dynamics simulation and MMPBSA calculations were performed. PI3K and BRAFV600E kinase inhibition was done. A375 and G-361 cells were used for in vitro cellular analysis to determine antiproliferative effects, annexin V binding, nuclear fragmentation and cell cycle analysis. Computational screening of small molecules indicates compound CB-006-3 selectively targets PI3KCG (gamma subunit), PI3KCD (delta subunit) and BRAFV600E. Molecular dynamics simulation… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Solar Energy Harvesting Using a Timer-Based Relay Selection

    Raed Alhamad1,*, Hatem Boujemaa2

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.74, No.1, pp. 2149-2159, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2023.033222

    Abstract In this paper, the throughput and delay of cooperative communications are derived when solar energy is used and relay node is selected using a timer. The source and relays harvest energy from sun using a photo voltaic system. The harvested power is used by the source to transmit data to the relays. Then, a selected relay amplifies the signal to the destination. Opportunistic, partial and reactive relay selection are used. The relay transmits when its timer elapses. The timer is set to a value proportional to the inverse of its Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR). Therefore, the relay with largest… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Multiway Relay Based Framework for Network Coding in Multi-Hop WSNs

    Vinod Kumar Menaria1, Anand Nayyar2, Sandeep Kumar3, Ketan Kotecha4,*

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.74, No.1, pp. 1199-1216, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2023.032162

    Abstract In today’s information technology (IT) world, the multi-hop wireless sensor networks (MHWSNs) are considered the building block for the Internet of Things (IoT) enabled communication systems for controlling everyday tasks of organizations and industry to provide quality of service (QoS) in a stipulated time slot to end-user over the Internet. Smart city (SC) is an example of one such application which can automate a group of civil services like automatic control of traffic lights, weather prediction, surveillance, etc., in our daily life. These IoT-based networks with multi-hop communication and multiple sink nodes provide efficient communication in terms of performance parameters… More >

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