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  • Open Access


    Vulnerability Detection of Ethereum Smart Contract Based on SolBERT-BiGRU-Attention Hybrid Neural Model

    Guangxia Xu1,*, Lei Liu2, Jingnan Dong3

    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.137, No.1, pp. 903-922, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2023.026627

    Abstract In recent years, with the great success of pre-trained language models, the pre-trained BERT model has been gradually applied to the field of source code understanding. However, the time cost of training a language model from zero is very high, and how to transfer the pre-trained language model to the field of smart contract vulnerability detection is a hot research direction at present. In this paper, we propose a hybrid model to detect common vulnerabilities in smart contracts based on a lightweight pre-trained language model BERT and connected to a bidirectional gate recurrent unit model. The downstream neural network adopts… More >

  • Open Access


    Blockchain Mobile Wallet with Secure Offline Transactions

    Raed Saeed Rasheed1, Khalil Hamdi Ateyeh Al-Shqeerat2,*, Ahmed Salah Ghorab3, Fuad Salama AbuOwaimer4, Aiman Ahmed AbuSamra1

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.75, No.2, pp. 2905-2919, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2023.036691

    Abstract There has been an increase in the adoption of mobile payment systems worldwide in the past few years. However, poor Internet connection in rural regions continues to be an obstacle to the widespread use of such technologies. On top of that, there are significant problems with the currently available offline wallets; for instance, the payee cannot verify the number of coins received without access to the Internet. Additionally, it has been demonstrated that some existing systems are susceptible to false token generation, and some do not even permit the user to divide the offline token into smaller portions to be… More >

  • Open Access


    A Review of Smart Contract Blockchain Based on Multi-Criteria Analysis: Challenges and Motivations

    Norah M. Alshahrani1,2,*, M. L. Mat Kiah1,*, B. B. Zaidan3, A. H. Alamoodi4, Abdu Saif5

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.75, No.2, pp. 2833-2858, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2023.036138

    Abstract A smart contract is a digital program of transaction protocol (rules of contract) based on the consensus architecture of blockchain. Smart contracts with Blockchain are modern technologies that have gained enormous attention in scientific and practical applications. A smart contract is the central aspect of a blockchain that facilitates blockchain as a platform outside the cryptocurrency spectrum. The development of blockchain technology, with a focus on smart contracts, has advanced significantly in recent years. However, research on the smart contract idea has weaknesses in the implementation sectors based on a decentralized network that shares an identical state. This paper extensively… More >

  • Open Access


    Data Security Storage Mechanism Based on Blockchain Network

    Jin Wang1, Wei Ou1, Wenhai Wang2, R. Simon Sherratt3, Yongjun Ren4, Xiaofeng Yu5,*

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.74, No.3, pp. 4933-4950, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2023.034148

    Abstract With the rapid development of information technology, the development of blockchain technology has also been deeply impacted. When performing block verification in the blockchain network, if all transactions are verified on the chain, this will cause the accumulation of data on the chain, resulting in data storage problems. At the same time, the security of data is also challenged, which will put enormous pressure on the block, resulting in extremely low communication efficiency of the block. The traditional blockchain system uses the Merkle Tree method to store data. While verifying the integrity and correctness of the data, the amount of… More >

  • Open Access


    Smart Contract to Traceability of Food Social Selling

    Cristian Valencia-Payan*, José Fernando Grass-Ramírez, Gustavo Ramirez-Gonzalez, Juan Carlos Corrales

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.74, No.3, pp. 4703-4728, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2023.031554

    Abstract Traditionally, food sustainability has been considered solely in the stage of agricultural production. However, globalization, the expansion of the food production industry, and the emergence of supermarket chains that control the retail food market require specific significant changes in supply chains in the food sector and, therefore, we need to address the economic, social, and environmental impacts of these events. On the other hand, social selling has increased rapidly in recent years, with a further boom, following current events related to the coronavirus disease (COVID-19). This explosion of social sales, where there are usually no control and regulation entities, can… More >

  • Open Access


    Block Verification Mechanism Based on Zero-Knowledge Proof in Blockchain

    Jin Wang1, Wei Ou1, Osama Alfarraj2, Amr Tolba2, Gwang-Jun Kim3,*, Yongjun Ren4

    Computer Systems Science and Engineering, Vol.45, No.2, pp. 1805-1819, 2023, DOI:10.32604/csse.2023.029622

    Abstract Since transactions in blockchain are based on public ledger verification, this raises security concerns about privacy protection. And it will cause the accumulation of data on the chain and resulting in the low efficiency of block verification, when the whole transaction on the chain is verified. In order to improve the efficiency and privacy protection of block data verification, this paper proposes an efficient block verification mechanism with privacy protection based on zero-knowledge proof (ZKP), which not only protects the privacy of users but also improves the speed of data block verification. There is no need to put the whole… More >

  • Open Access


    Formal Verification Platform as a Service: WebAssembly Vulnerability Detection Application

    LiangJun Deng1, Hang Lei1, Zheng Yang1, WeiZhong Qian1,*, XiaoYu Li1, Hao Wu2, Sihao Deng3, RuChao Sha1, WeiDong Deng4

    Computer Systems Science and Engineering, Vol.45, No.2, pp. 2155-2170, 2023, DOI:10.32604/csse.2023.027680

    Abstract In order to realize a general-purpose automatic formal verification platform based on WebAssembly technology as a web service (FVPS), which aims to provide an automated report of vulnerability detections, this work builds a Hyperledger Fabric blockchain runtime model. It proposes an optimized methodology of the functional equivalent translation from source program languages to formal languages. This methodology utilizes an external application programming interface (API) table to replace the source codes in compilation, thereby pruning the part of housekeeping codes to ease code inflation. Code inflation is a significant metric in formal language translation. Namely, minor code inflation enhances verification scale… More >

  • Open Access


    Analyzing Ethereum Smart Contract Vulnerabilities at Scale Based on Inter-Contract Dependency

    Qiuyun Lyu1, Chenhao Ma1, Yanzhao Shen2, Shaopeng Jiao3, Yipeng Sun1, Liqin Hu1,*

    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.135, No.2, pp. 1625-1647, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2022.021562

    Abstract Smart contracts running on public blockchains are permissionless and decentralized, attracting both developers and malicious participants. Ethereum, the world’s largest decentralized application platform on which more than 40 million smart contracts are running, is frequently challenged by smart contract vulnerabilities. What’s worse, since the homogeneity of a wide range of smart contracts and the increase in inter-contract dependencies, a vulnerability in a certain smart contract could affect a large number of other contracts in Ethereum. However, little is known about how vulnerable contracts affect other on-chain contracts and which contracts can be affected. Thus, we first present the contract dependency… More >

  • Open Access


    Deep Learning-Based Program-Wide Binary Code Similarity for Smart Contracts

    Yuan Zhuang1, Baobao Wang1, Jianguo Sun2,*, Haoyang Liu1, Shuqi Yang1, Qingan Da3

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.74, No.1, pp. 1011-1024, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2023.028058

    Abstract Recently, security issues of smart contracts are arising great attention due to the enormous financial loss caused by vulnerability attacks. There is an increasing need to detect similar codes for hunting vulnerability with the increase of critical security issues in smart contracts. Binary similarity detection that quantitatively measures the given code diffing has been widely adopted to facilitate critical security analysis. However, due to the difference between common programs and smart contract, such as diversity of bytecode generation and highly code homogeneity, directly adopting existing graph matching and machine learning based techniques to smart contracts suffers from low accuracy, poor… More >

  • Open Access


    Smart Quarantine Environment Privacy through IoT Gadgets Using Blockchain

    Nitish Pathak1, Shams Tabrez Siddiqui2, Anjani Kumar Singha3, Heba G Mohamed4, Shabana Urooj4,*, Abhinandan R Patil5

    Intelligent Automation & Soft Computing, Vol.35, No.3, pp. 3021-3036, 2023, DOI:10.32604/iasc.2023.029053

    Abstract The coronavirus, formerly known as COVID-19, has caused massive global disasters. As a precaution, most governments imposed quarantine periods ranging from months to years and postponed significant financial obligations. Furthermore, governments around the world have used cutting-edge technologies to track citizens’ activity. Thousands of sensors were connected to IoT (Internet of Things) devices to monitor the catastrophic eruption with billions of connected devices that use these novel tools and apps, privacy and security issues regarding data transmission and memory space abound. In this study, we suggest a blockchain-based methodology for safeguarding data in the billions of devices and sensors connected… More >

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