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  • Open Access


    Co-Production of High-Grade Dissolving Pulp, Furfural, and Lignin from Eucalyptus via Extremely Low Acid Pretreatment and Pulping Technologies and Catalysis

    Chengxiang Li, Yue Wu, Chunhui Zhang*, Yao Liu, Qixuan Lin, Junli Ren*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.11, No.6, pp. 2555-2574, 2023, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2023.026908

    Abstract Hemicellulose and lignin are not reasonably utilized during the dissolved pulp preparation process. This work aimed to propose a process for the co-production of dissolving pulp, furfural, and lignin from eucalyptus. High-grade dissolving pulp was prepared from eucalyptus using a combination of extremely low acid (ELA) pretreatment, Kraft cooking, and elementary chlorine-free (ECF) bleaching. The obtained pre-hydrolysate was catalytic conversion into furfural in a biphasic system, and lignin during Kraft cooking and ECF was recovered. The process condition was discussed as well as the mass flow direction. The results showed that ELA pretreatment could effectively remove 80.1% hemicellulose. Compared with… More >

  • Open Access


    Quantitative Extraction of p-Coumaric Acid and Ferulic Acid in Different Gramineous Materials and Structural Changes of Residual Alkali Lignin

    Tanhao Zhang, Shuo Zhang, Wu Lan*, Fengxia Yue*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.11, No.2, pp. 555-566, 2023, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2023.025701

    Abstract Ferulic acid (FA) and p-coumaric acid (pCA) in bagasse, wheat straw, corn straw, and corncob were extracted by alkaline hydrolysis and characterized by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). It was found that the FA and most of the pCA in gramineous biomass could be dissociated and released after being treated with 1 M NaOH at 100°C for 4 h. The yields of pCA/FA in bagasse, wheat straw, corn straw, and corncob determined by GC-FID are 39.8/11.5, 13.7/11.0, 28.0/11.0, and 35.1/14.5 mg/g, respectively. The raw materials and the treated solid residues were characterized by gel-state 2D Heteronuclear Single… More > Graphic Abstract

    Quantitative Extraction of <i>p</i>-Coumaric Acid and Ferulic Acid in Different Gramineous Materials and Structural Changes of Residual Alkali Lignin

  • Open Access


    Application of Submerged Ultrafiltration in Pretreatment of Flue Gas Desulfurization Wastewater

    Jiageng Zhang1, Zhengfeng Wang2, Jiguang Huang1, Chao Cheng1, Heng Zhang1, Dan Gao1,*

    Energy Engineering, Vol.119, No.6, pp. 2277-2296, 2022, DOI:10.32604/ee.2022.020795


    Nowadays, the zero liquid discharge of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wastewater from coal-fired units has attracted the attention of all countries in the world. The pretreatment methods generally have the problems of high operation cost, small treatment capacity, and poor flexibility. However, the membrane method can avoid the above problems. In the current research, it has not been found that someone directly uses submerged ultrafiltration to pretreat FGD wastewater. Therefore, this paper innovatively proposed to directly use ceramic ultrafiltration membrane to treat FGD wastewater, which can ensure effluent quality and improve the flexibility of the pretreatment system. In this paper,… More >

  • Open Access


    The Usefulness of Pretreatment MR-Based Radiomics on Early Response of Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Patients With Locally Advanced Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    Piao Yongfeng*†‡§1, Jiang Chuner*¶#1, Wang Lei*†‡§, Yan Fengqin*†‡§, Ye Zhimin*†‡§, Fu Zhenfu*†‡§, Jiang Haitao*,**††, Jiang Yangming‡‡, Wang Fangzheng*†‡§

    Oncology Research, Vol.28, No.6, pp. 605-613, 2020, DOI:10.3727/096504020X16022401878096

    Abstract The aim of this study was to explore the predictive role of pretreatment MRI-based radiomics on early response of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients. Between January 2016 and December 2016, a total of 108 newly diagnosed NPC patients who were hospitalized in the Cancer Hospital of the University of Chinese Academy of Sciences were reviewed. All patients had complete data of enhanced MR of nasopharynx before treatment, and then received two to three cycles of TP-based NAC. After 2 cycles of NAC, enhanced MR of nasopharynx was conducted again. Compared with the enhanced MR images… More >

  • Open Access


    Study on Microwave Pretreatment Technology to Improve the Effect of Shellac Impregnation of Fast-Growing Chinese Fir

    Xiya Yu1, Nianfeng Wei2, Qisong Liu2, Zhiyong Wu2, Mizi Fan3, Weigang Zhao1,*, Qinzhi Zeng1,*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.8, pp. 2041-2053, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.018027

    Abstract To improve the mechanical properties of fast-growing Chinese fir (Cunnighamia lanceolate), expand its range of application, increase its value, and avoid the environmental pollution caused by impregnation with synthetic resin, Chinese fir was impregnated with a shellac solution. Since the shellac solution was difficult to penetrate into fast-growing Chinese fir, so microwave pretreatment was used to irradiate the wood to improve the permeability. This study investigated the effects of four factors, including the content of moisture in the wood before it was microwaved, the chamber pressure of microwave, the time of microwaving and the vacuum impregnation on the mechanical properties… More > Graphic Abstract

    Study on Microwave Pretreatment Technology to Improve the Effect of Shellac Impregnation of Fast-Growing Chinese Fir

  • Open Access


    L’exploration axillaire : un standard du bilan préthérapeutique
    Axillary Evaluation: a Standard in Pretreatment Staging

    S. Dejust

    Oncologie, Vol.21, No.1, pp. 5-10, 2019, DOI:10.3166/onco-2019-0031

    Abstract Axillary evaluation is a major step in the initial staging of breast cancer. Ultrasound guided biopsy is currently recommended in first-line. MRI and 18FDG PET/CT are useful in axillary lymph node evaluation. Imaging sensitivities and specificities are globally identical and their combination allows obtaining the best performances. Currently, sentinel node technique is essential in case of T1-T2 N0 mammary tumors and in case of suspected lymph node adenopathy with negative cytopuncture or microbiopsy.

    L’exploration préthérapeutique axillaire est une étape majeure du bilan initial du cancer du sein. L’échographie associée à un prélèvement est actuellement recommandée en première intention. L’IRM et la… More >

  • Open Access


    Emission Behaviors of Submicron Particles (PM1) Generated by the Combustion of Sesame Stalk after Combined Water Washing and Carbonization Pretreatment

    Tianyu Liu1, Chang Wen1,2,3,*, Wenyu Wang1, Kai Yan3, Yongjun Xia4, Rui Li3, Juan Liu4, Yang Zhang1

    Energy Engineering, Vol.118, No.3, pp. 473-485, 2021, DOI:10.32604/EE.2021.014870

    Abstract Pretreatment before biomass combustion is significant for its efficient utilization and that combined water washing and carbonization can be efficient. An agricultural processing residues sesame stalk was selected and carried out two pretreatments separately, i.e., water washing-torrefaction (W-T) and torrefaction-water washing (T-W), to explore the effect on the fuel properties, combustion characteristics and particulate matter (PM) emission. The obtained biochar was also combusted under air and oxy50 (CO2:O2 = 50:50) conditions for the sake of investigating the effect of pretreatment and combustion atmosphere. The results indicate that, W-T and T-W both not only have great effect on the improvement of… More >

  • Open Access


    NaOH/Urea Swelling Treatment and Hydrothermal Degradation of Waste Cotton Fiber

    Lixia Gao1, Sheng Shi1,2,*, Wensheng Hou1, Shuhua Wang1, Zhifeng Yan1, Chao Ge1

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.8, No.6, pp. 703-713, 2020, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2020.09055

    Abstract In this study, waste cotton fabric was used as cellulose raw material and pretreated in aqueous NaOH/urea solution system to investigate the effect of NaOH/urea pretreatment solution on the hydrolysis of cotton fiber. The cotton fiber was pretreated with different conditions of aqueous NaOH/urea solution, and the pretreated cotton fiber was hydrolyzed under the same conditions as the original cotton fiber. The results of characterization analysis showed that water retention value of pretreated cotton fiber was higher than that of unpretreated sample. Moreover, the cotton fiber presented both a convoluted structure and a coarser surface, XRD results suggested that the… More >

  • Open Access

    Pretreatment of Wheat Bran for Suitable Reinforcement in Biocomposites

    Atikur Rahman1,3, Chad A. Ulven2, Maren A. Johnson1, Cheyenne Durant1, Khwaja G. Hossain*,1

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.5, Suppl.1, pp. 62-73, 2017, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2017.634133

    Abstract Wheat bran, abundant but underutilized, was investigated for its potential as a reinforcement in biocomposites through different pretreatment methods. Pretreatment methods included were dilute sodium hydroxide (NaOH), dilute sulfuric acid (H2SO4), liquid hot water (LHW), calcium hydroxide (CaOH), organosolv such as aqueous ethanol (EtOH), and methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK). Changes in chemical composition and fiber characteristics of the treated bran were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Cellulose content increased to 35.1% and 29.6% in brans treated with H2SO4 and NaOH, respectively. The SEM micrographs showed surface cleaning of treated bran while maintaining sufficient… More >

  • Open Access


    Agmatine pretreatment protects retinal ganglion cells (RGC-5 cell line) from oxidative stress in vitro


    BIOCELL, Vol.32, No.3, pp. 245-250, 2008, DOI:10.32604/biocell.2008.32.245

    Abstract Agmatine, 2-(4-aminobutyl)guanidine, has been reported to have neuroprotective effects against various neuronal damages. In this study it was investigated whether agmatine pretreatment rescues the retinal ganglion cells from oxidative injury in vitro. After differentiation of transformed rat retinal ganglion cells (RGC-5 cell line) with staurosporine, agmatine (0.0 to 100.0 μM) pretreatment was performed for 2 hours. Subsequently, they were exposed to hydrogen peroxide (0.0 to 2.5 mM) as an oxidative stress. Cell viability was monitored for up to 48 hours with the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay and apoptosis was examined by the terminal deoxynucleotide transferase-mediated terminal uridine deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick… More >

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