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  • Open Access


    Hydrolysable Chestnut Tannin Extract Chemical Complexity in Its Reactions for Non-Isocyanate Polyurethanes (NIPU) Foams

    Elham Azadeh1, Antonio Pizzi1,2,*, Christine Gerardin-Charbonnier1,*, Philippe Gerardin1

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.11, No.6, pp. 2823-2848, 2023, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2023.027651

    Abstract Non-isocyanate polyurethane (NIPU) foams from a commercial hydrolysable tannin extract, chestnut wood tannin extract, have been prepared to determine what chemical species and products are taking part in the reactions involved. This method is based on two main steps: the reaction with dimethyl carbonate and the formation of urethane bonds by further reaction of the carbonated tannin with a diamine-like hexamethylene diamine. The hydroxyl groups on the tannin polyphenols and on the carbohydrates intimately linked with it and part of a hydrolysable tannin are the groups involved in these reactions. The carbohydrate skeleton of the hydrolysable tannin is also able… More > Graphic Abstract

    Hydrolysable Chestnut Tannin Extract Chemical Complexity in Its  Reactions for Non-Isocyanate Polyurethanes (NIPU) Foams

  • Open Access


    Effect of Amine Type on Lignin Modification to Evaluate Its Reactivity in Polyol Construction for Non-Isocyanate Polyurethanes (NIPU)

    Saeed Kazemi Najafi1, Farhood Najafi2, Antonio Pizzi3,*, Fatemeh Hassani Khorshidi1,*, Rabi Behrooz1

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.11, No.5, pp. 2171-2189, 2023, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2023.027835

    Abstract Polyols are groups of organic compounds which contain carbon and are randomly linked to other atoms, especially carbon-carbon and carbon-hydrogen. These compounds are mainly used as reactants to make other polymers. Among biopolymers, lignin is regarded as the base of a new polymer in polyol construction. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of amine type (diethylenetriamine and ethylenediamine) on the modification of lignin-based polyols, so as to provide an alternative to petroleum polyols and, in turn, increase functional groups and reduce their harm to humans’ health and the environment. To this aim, first, lignin was extracted from raw… More > Graphic Abstract

    Effect of Amine Type on Lignin Modification to Evaluate Its Reactivity in Polyol Construction for Non-Isocyanate Polyurethanes (NIPU)

  • Open Access


    High Water Resistance and Enhanced Mechanical Properties of Bio-Based Waterborne Polyurethane Enabled by in-situ Construction of Interpenetrating Polymer Network

    Henghui Deng1,2, Jingyi Lu1,2, Dunsheng Liang1,2, Xiaomin Wang1,2, Tongyao Wang1,2, Weihao Zhang1,2, Jing Wang3,*, Chaoqun Zhang1,2,*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.11, No.3, pp. 1209-1222, 2023, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.023371

    Abstract In this study, acrylic acid was used as a neutralizer to prepare bio-based WPU with an interpenetrating polymer network structure by thermally induced free radical emulsion polymerization. The effects of the content of acrylic acid on the properties of the resulting waterborne polyurethane-poly (acrylic acid) (WPU-PAA) dispersion and the films were systematically investigated. The results showed that the cross-linking density of the interpenetrating network polymers was increased and the interlocking structure of the soft and hard phase dislocations in the molecular segments of the double networks was tailored with increasing the content of acrylic acid, leading to enhancement of the… More > Graphic Abstract

    High Water Resistance and Enhanced Mechanical Properties of Bio-Based Waterborne Polyurethane Enabled by <i>in-situ</i> Construction of Interpenetrating Polymer Network

  • Open Access


    Towards Solar-Driven Formation of Robust and Self-Healable Waterborne Polyurethane Containing Disulfide Bonds via in-situ Incorporation of 2D Titanium Carbide MXene

    Sai Gong1,2,#, Shanglin Xiang1,#, Tingwei Wang1,*, Dongyu Cai2,*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.11, No.3, pp. 1063-1076, 2023, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.023011

    Abstract Waterborne polymers are vital for coating industry to reduce carbon emissions. However, formation of robust and self-healable films at ambient temperature remains a challenge owing to high energy cost of film formation process. This work reports a solar-driven film formation of waterborne polyurethanes (WPUs) containing disulfide bonds via in-situ incorporation of 2D titanium carbide (MXene) with ability to convert light to heat. Instead of directly mixed with WPUs, MXene is added to join the reaction with isocyanate-terminated pre-polymer before emulsification process. This approach not only prevents aggregation of MXene in water but stabilizes MXene against thermal degradation which is the… More > Graphic Abstract

    Towards Solar-Driven Formation of Robust and Self-Healable Waterborne Polyurethane Containing Disulfide Bonds via <i>in-situ</i> Incorporation of 2D Titanium Carbide MXene

  • Open Access


    Bio-Based High Functionality Polyols and Their Use in 1K Polyurethane Coatings

    Thomas J. Nelson, Lindsey Bultema, Neal Eidenschink, Dean C. Webster*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.1, No.2, pp. 141-153, 2013, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2013.634113

    Abstract Bio-based polyols with high functionality were successfully synthesized by ring-opening epoxidized sucrose esters of soybean oil with methanol under acidic conditions, and were subsequently formulated with blocked isocyanates to form one package polyurethanes (1KPU). The bio-based polyols were characterized by gel permeation chromatography (GPC), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1 H-NMR) spectroscopy, and Brookfi eld viscosity. Bio-based coatings were prepared by formulating the polyols with blocked polyisocyanates based on isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) and hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI). Two types of bio-based polyols were synthesized and the ratio of NCO:OH functional groups was varied to explore the effect… More >

  • Open Access


    Advances of Polyurethane Foams Derived from Lignin

    Hyoe Hatakeyama1,*, Tatsuko Hatakeyama2

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.1, No.2, pp. 113-123, 2013, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2012.634111

    Abstract Lignin and saccharides are two major components of plants. Huge amounts of plant residues are obtained as by-products of large-scale industries, such as pulp and paper, bio-fuel and the food industry. In this paper, preparation of polyurethane (PU) foam directly from various kinds of industrial lignin and molasses, which have scarcely been utilized, is summarized based on our results obtained by recent investigation. A onestep reaction using hydroxyl groups of plant materials as an active site makes it possible to produce a wide variety of PU, such as foams, sheets, gels and composite matrix. In this paper, PU foams receive… More >

  • Open Access


    Fully Renewable Thermoplastic Poly(ester urethane urea)s from Bio-based Diisocyanates

    Donglin Tang1,2, Shanmugam Thiyagarajan2,3, Bart A.J. Noordover1,*, Cor E. Koning1, Daan S. van Es3, Jacco van Haveren

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.1, No.3, pp. 222-230, 2013, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2013.634116

    Abstract A series of fully renewable poly(ester urethane urea)s (PEUs) were synthesized from bio-based starting materials, e.g., the polyester diol, the diisocyanates including L-lysine diisocyanate (LDI) and isoidide diisocyanate (IIDI), the chain-extenders including 1,4-diaminobutane (bDA), diaminoisoidide (iDA) and di(aminobutyl) urea (b2 DA). It is found that the PEU based on the novel diisocyanate, IIDI, exhibits satisfactory thermal and mechanical properties. The LDI-based PEUs show less favorable thermal and mechanical properties than the IIDI-based counterpart, since the chemical structure of LDI is less regular than that of IIDI. However, by introducing a urea-containing dimeric diamine (b2 DA) instead of the monomeric diamines,… More >

  • Open Access


    Thiol-yne Reaction of Alkyne-d erivatized Fatty Acids: Thiol-Reactive Linear Polyurethane

    Rodolfo J. González-Paz, Gerard Lligadas*, Juan C. Ronda, Marina Galià, Virginia Cádiz

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.1, No.3, pp. 187-194, 2013, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2013.634114

    Abstract A thiol-reactive linear polyurethane was synthesized from a vinyl-sulphide-containing diol and a commercial diisocyanate. The diol was obtained from 10-undecynol, an alkyne-derivatized fatty compound, using hydrothiolation as a key reaction step. 10-Undecynol was prepared by reduction of 10-undecinoic acid methyl ester, which was prepared by successive bromation, dehydrobromination of the corresponding alkenic fatty acid. Solution and surface polymer modifi cation with a fl uorescent thiol was successful. More >

  • Open Access


    Dynamic Foaming Behaviour of Polyurethane vs Tannin/ Furanic Foams

    M.C. Basso1,2, A. Pizzi1,3,*, A. Celzard4

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.1, No.4, pp. 273-278, 2013, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2013.634125

    Abstract : Simultaneously monitoring the variation of temperature, foam rising rate, internal foam pressure and dielectric polarisation, the latter being a direct measure of setting and curing of a thermosetting foam, has allowed the comparison of the dynamic variation of determinant parameters of polyurethane foams and of tannin/furanic foams of different formulation and characteristics. This monitoring provides a good description of the process and possible characteristics of the prepared foam and constitutes an invaluable tool for foam formulation. Such a comparison indicates that fundamental differences, but also similarities, exist between the foaming processes of the two classes of foam. The dynamics… More >

  • Open Access


    Synthesis of Oligo(butylene succinate)-based Polyurethanes: Infl uence of the Chemical Structure on Thermal and Mechanical Properties

    L. Poussard1,*, A. Mecheri1, J. Mariage1, I. Barakat1, L. Bonnaud1, J.-M. Raquez1,2, P. Dubois1,2

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.2, No.1, pp. 13-22, 2014, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2013.634132

    Abstract Biobased oligo(butylene succinate)-based thermoplastic polyurethanes (TPUs) were prepared following a twostep polymerization process: condensation of succinic acid and butanediol and the chain extension of resulting hydroxyl-terminated butylene succinate oligomers (OBS) in the presence of butanediol as chain extender and isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) as coupling agent. Mechanical and thermal properties of the elaborated TPUs were evaluated in terms of hard segment and compared with those of commercial polybutylene succinate (PBS), Bionolle 1001. Whatever the compositions, the ultimate tensile properties of OBS-based TPUs and Bionolle 1001 were found to exhibit similar values (εr ≈ 400%, σr ≈ 40 MPa), which can be… More >

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