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  • Open Access


    Design and Development of Composite Plywood that Integrates Fire Resistance, Water Resistance and Wear Resistance

    Xingyu Liang1, Xiaoyu Gu1, Myint Myint Paing Hsu2, Yuhang He1, Rongzhuo Zhang1, Conghui Cai3, Zheng Wang1,*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.11, No.5, pp. 2333-2344, 2023, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2023.026137

    Abstract In order to improve the fire resistance, water resistance and wear resistance of ordinary plywood products in the wood processing industry, three composite structures of plywood products S1, S2 and S3 were designed in this paper, and a reasonable production process was proposed. Through the physical and mechanical properties and fire resistance testing and technical and economic analysis, the applicability of composite plywood was evaluated. The results of the study showed that the physical mechanics of the three kinds of composite structure plywood met the standard requirements, and their fire resistance was far better than that of ordinary plywood. Among… More >

  • Open Access


    MALDI ToF Investigation of the Reaction of Soy Protein Isolate with Glutaraldehyde for Wood Adhesives

    Qianyu Zhang1,2, Antonio Pizzi3, Hong Lei1,2,*, Xuedong Xi1,2,*, Ming Cao1,2, Long Cao1,2

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.11, No.3, pp. 1439-1450, 2023, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.023535

    Abstract Soy protein adhesives are currently a hot research topic in the wood panels industry for the abundant raw material reserves, reasonable price and outstanding environmental features. But their poor water resistance, low bonding strength and intolerance to mold are major drawbacks, so that proper modification before use is essential. Glutaraldehyde is one of the more apt cross-linking agents for soybean protein adhesives, which can effectively improve the bonding strength and water resistance of the adhesive. Equally, glutaraldehyde is also an efficient and broad-spectrum fungicide that can significantly improve the anti-fungal properties of a soy protein adhesive. In the work presented… More > Graphic Abstract

    MALDI ToF Investigation of the Reaction of Soy Protein Isolate with Glutaraldehyde for Wood Adhesives

  • Open Access


    Acoustic Emission Characteristics of Different Bamboo and Wood Materials in Bending Failure Process

    Ting Wang1, Zhiqiang Wang1,*, Yin Yang1, Jianhui Zhou2,*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.2, pp. 527-540, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.017955

    Abstract The acoustic emission (AE) technique can perform non-destructive monitoring of the internal damage development of bamboo and wood materials. In this experiment, the mechanical properties of different bamboo and wood (bamboo scrimber, bamboo plywood and SPF (Spruce-pine-fir) dimension lumber) during four-point loading tests were compared. The AE activities caused by loadings were investigated through the single parameter analysis and K-means cluster analysis. Results showed that the bending strength of bamboo scrimber was 3.6 times that of bamboo plywood and 2.7 times that of SPF dimension lumber, respectively. Due to the high strength and toughness of bamboo, the AE signals of… More > Graphic Abstract

    Acoustic Emission Characteristics of Different Bamboo and Wood Materials in Bending Failure Process

  • Open Access


    Synthesis of Lignin-Based Polyacid in an Acidic Ionic Liquid: A Green Method to Improve the Performance of Lignin as Catalyst in Urea-Formaldehyde Resin

    Hamed Younesi-Kordkheili1,*, Antonio Pizzi2

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.2, pp. 237-246, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.017851

    Abstract The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of ionic liquid treated lignin-based polyacid as a catalyst for urea-formaldehyde (UF) resins. Esterification of lignin was carried out, without any catalyst, with anhydride maleic and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulfate [Bmim][HSO4] as acidic ionic liquid to form maleated lignin-based polyacids (MA-IL). The performance of MA-IL as UF resin catalyst was respectively compared to hyroxymethylated lignin-based polyacid (MA-HL) and to NH4Cl. The FTIR analysis indicated that the proportion of -COOH and C-O bonds increased due to the esterification of lignin with ionic liquid rather than its hyroxymethylation. Physicochemical tests indicated that the… More >

  • Open Access


    Study of Burning Behaviors and Fire Risk of Flame Retardant Plywood by Cone Calorimeter and TG Test

    Liping Yu1, Zhongyou Luo1, Lifen Li1, Xuedong Xi2,3, Zhigang Wu1,2,*, Bengang Zhang4,*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.9, No.12, pp. 2143-2157, 2021, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2021.016092

    Abstract A flame retardant composition was prepared by using phosphoguanidine, guanidine sulfamate, disodium octaborate tetrahydrate and dodecyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride. Veneers were immersed in such flame retardant mixture to prepare plywood. The combustion characteristics and thermal stability of plywood were assessed using a cone calorimeter and TG. Results showed that: (1) High concentration and loading of flame retardant were beneficial for the fire resistance of the plywood. (2) The limiting oxygen index (LOI) and residual mass of plywood processed using the flame retardant was increased by 87.52% and 58.66% compared to those of the untreated plywood, while the average heat… More >

  • Open Access


    Review on the Application of Bamboo-Based Materials in Construction Engineering

    Biqing Shu1,2, Zhongping Xiao2, Lu Hong1, Sujun Zhang2, Chen Li2, Naiqiang Fu2, Xiaoning Lu1,*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.8, No.10, pp. 1215-1242, 2020, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2020.011263

    Abstract Due to the continuously increasing demand for building materials across the world, it is necessary to use renewable materials in place of the existing nonrenewable materials in construction projects. Bamboo is a fast-growing flowering plant that may be used as a renewable material in construction. The use of bamboo in the construction of buildings can improve its long-term carbon fixation capacity and economic benefits. Although bamboo has the advantages of superior performance, low carbon content, high energy-saving and emission-reducing capacity, bamboo is an anisotropic material, which has many factors affecting its material performance, large variability of material performance, lack of… More >

  • Open Access


    Bond Performance of Adhesively Bonding Interface of Steel-Bamboo Composite Structure

    Jialiang Zhang1, Zhenwen Zhang2, Keting Tong1, Jianmin Wang2, Yushun Li3,*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.8, No.6, pp. 687-702, 2020, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2020.09513

    Abstract The steel-bamboo composite structure is a newly developed structure, combining phyllostachys pubescens (also called Moso bamboo) plywood and cold-formed thin-walled steel with structural adhesive. The reliability of steelbamboo interface is the premise of composite effect. 13 specimens were prepared to investigate the failure modes and mechanism of the steel-bamboo interface on the basis of push-out test, and the strain difference analysis method was proposed to study the distribution of shear stress. The results show that the main failure modes of steel-bamboo interface are adhesion failure and splitting of bamboo plywood. The shear stress is not evenly distributed along the longitudinal… More >

  • Open Access

    A Highly Water-Resistant Soy-Based Bioadhesive with 1,4-Butanediol Diglycidyl Ether and its Application on Plywood

    Kun Li, Xiaona Li, Jing Luo, Jingjing Li, Qiang Gao*, Jianzhang Li*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.5, Suppl.1, pp. 31-38, 2017, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2017.634131

    Abstract The objective of this study was to use soybean meal and 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether (BDDE) to develop a highly water-resistant, soy-based bioadhesive for plywood fabrication. The physical properties and performance characteristics of the resulting adhesive, including solid content, viscosity, water resistance, crystallinity, fracture morphology, thermal behavior, and cracks, were evaluated. The proposed adhesive was compared against the traditional soy adhesive with polyamidoamine-epichlorohydrin (PAE). Results showed that adding 8 g of BDDE into the adhesive formulation improved the solid content up to 32.83% and reduced the viscosity to 27340 mPa·s. The wet shear strength of plywood bonded with the adhesive was… More >

  • Open Access


    Characterization Methodology for Biological Plywoods Based on Characteristic Cross-Section Patterns

    Oscar F. Aguilar Gutierrez, Alejandro D. Rey*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.4, No.4, pp. 241-250, 2016, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2016.634119

    Abstract Biological plywoods are solid analogues of liquid crystalline phases whose building blocks, including cellulose, collagen and chitin, present multifunctionality, providing in some cases protection, camouflage, self-healing and/or adaptability to the surrounding environment. The 3D ordered structure is the main factor for these fascinating properties, and the assessment of the structure-property relationship will be a powerful tool in terms of future material design and innovation. Cross-section observations lead to characteristic patterns depending on the specific arrangement of the plywood’s building blocks. Twisted plywood architectures, known as the Bouligand structure, lead to the widely observed arced patterns which can be ideal or… More >

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