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  • Open Access


    Double Deep Q-Network Method for Energy Efficiency and Throughput in a UAV-Assisted Terrestrial Network

    Mohamed Amine Ouamri1,2, Reem Alkanhel3,*, Daljeet Singh4, El-sayed M. El-kenaway5, Sherif S. M. Ghoneim6

    Computer Systems Science and Engineering, Vol.46, No.1, pp. 73-92, 2023, DOI:10.32604/csse.2023.034461

    Abstract Increasing the coverage and capacity of cellular networks by deploying additional base stations is one of the fundamental objectives of fifth-generation (5G) networks. However, it leads to performance degradation and huge spectral consumption due to the massive densification of connected devices and simultaneous access demand. To meet these access conditions and improve Quality of Service, resource allocation (RA) should be carefully optimized. Traditionally, RA problems are nonconvex optimizations, which are performed using heuristic methods, such as genetic algorithm, particle swarm optimization, and simulated annealing. However, the application of these approaches remains computationally expensive and unattractive for dense cellular networks. Therefore,… More >

  • Open Access


    Impairments Approximations in Assembled mmWave and Radio Over Fiber Network

    Muhammad Irfan1, Farman Ali2, Fazal Muhammad3,*, Saifur Rahman1, Ammar Armghan4, Yousaf Khan5, Faisal Althobiani6, Rehan Shafiq7, Mohammed Alshareef8, Mohammad E. Gommosani9

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.73, No.3, pp. 4885-4895, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.030157

    Abstract The fiber nonlinearity and phase noise (PN) are the focused impairments in the optical communication system, induced by high-capacity transmission and high laser input power. The channels include high-capacity transmissions that cannot be achieved at the end side without aliasing because of fiber nonlinearity and PN impairments. Thus, addressing of these distortions is the basic objective for the 5G mobile network. In this paper, the fiber nonlinearity and PN are investigated using the assembled methodology of millimeter-wave and radio over fiber (mmWave-RoF). The analytical model is designed in terms of outage probability for the proposed mmWave-RoF system. The performance of… More >

  • Open Access


    A Sparse Optimization Approach for Beyond 5G mmWave Massive MIMO Networks

    Waleed Shahjehan1, Abid Ullah1, Syed Waqar Shah1, Imran Khan1, Nor Samsiah Sani2, Ki-Il Kim3,*

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.72, No.2, pp. 2797-2810, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.026185

    Abstract Millimeter-Wave (mmWave) Massive MIMO is one of the most effective technology for the fifth-generation (5G) wireless networks. It improves both the spectral and energy efficiency by utilizing the 30–300 GHz millimeter-wave bandwidth and a large number of antennas at the base station. However, increasing the number of antennas requires a large number of radio frequency (RF) chains which results in high power consumption. In order to reduce the RF chain's energy, cost and provide desirable quality-of-service (QoS) to the subscribers, this paper proposes an energy-efficient hybrid precoding algorithm for mmWave massive MIMO networks based on the idea of RF chains… More >

  • Open Access


    A Compact 28 GHz Millimeter Wave Antenna for Future Wireless Communication

    Shahid Khan1,2, Adil Bashir3, Haider Ali4, Abdul Rauf5, Mohamed Marey6,*, Hala Mostafa7, Ikram Syed8

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.72, No.1, pp. 301-314, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.023397

    Abstract This article presents a novel modified chuck wagon dinner bell shaped millimeter wave (mm-wave) antenna at 28 GHz. The proposed design has ultra-thin Rogers 5880 substrate with relative permittivity of 2.2. The design consists of T shaped resonating elements and two open ended side stubs. The desired 28 GHz frequency response is achieved by careful parametric modeling of the proposed structure. The maximum achieved single element gain at the desired resonance frequency is 3.45 dBi. The efficiency of the proposed design over the operating band is more than 88%. The impedance bandwidth achieved for −10 dB reference value is nearly… More >

  • Open Access


    Beamforming Performance Analysis of Millimeter-Wave 5G Wireless Networks

    Omar A. Saraereh*, Ashraf Ali

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.70, No.3, pp. 5383-5397, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.021724

    Abstract With the rapid growth in the number of mobile devices and user connectivity, the demand for higher system capacity and improved quality-of-service is required. As the demand for high-speed wireless communication grows, numerous modulation techniques in the frequency, temporal, and spatial domains, such as orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM), time division multiple access (TDMA), space division multiple access (SDMA), and multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO), are being developed. Along with those approaches, electromagnetic waves’ orbital angular momentum (OAM) is attracting attention because it has the potential to boost the wireless communication capacity. Antenna electromagnetic radiation can be described by a sum of… More >

  • Open Access


    A Highly Efficient Algorithm for Phased-Array mmWave Massive MIMO Beamforming

    Ayman Abdulhadi Althuwayb1, Fazirulhisyam Hashim2, Jiun Terng Liew2, Imran Khan3, Jeong Woo Lee4, Emmanuel Ampoma Affum5, Abdeldjalil Ouahabi6,7,*, Sébastien Jacques8

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.69, No.1, pp. 679-694, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.015421

    Abstract With the rapid development of the mobile internet and the internet of things (IoT), the fifth generation (5G) mobile communication system is seeing explosive growth in data traffic. In addition, low-frequency spectrum resources are becoming increasingly scarce and there is now an urgent need to switch to higher frequency bands. Millimeter wave (mmWave) technology has several outstanding features—it is one of the most well-known 5G technologies and has the capacity to fulfil many of the requirements of future wireless networks. Importantly, it has an abundant resource spectrum, which can significantly increase the communication rate of a mobile communication system. As… More >

  • Open Access


    Propagation Characterization and Analysis for 5G mmWave Through Field Experiments

    Faizan Qamar1, Mhd Nour Hindia2, Tharek Abd Rahman3, Rosilah Hassan1, Kaharudin Dimyati2, Quang Ngoc Nguyen4,*

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.68, No.2, pp. 2249-2264, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.017198

    Abstract The 5G network has been intensively investigated to realize the ongoing early deployment stage as an effort to match the exponential growth of the number of connected users and their increasing demands for high throughput, bandwidth with Quality of Service (QoS), and low latency. Given that most of the spectrums below 6 GHz are nearly used up, it is not feasible to employ the traditional spectrum, which is currently in use. Therefore, a promising and highly feasible effort to satisfy this insufficient frequency spectrum is to acquire new frequency bands for next-generation mobile communications. Toward this end, the primary effort… More >

  • Open Access


    Improved Hybrid Beamforming for mmWave Multi-User Massive MIMO

    Ji-Sung Jung1, Won-Seok Lee1, Yeong-Rong Lee1, Jaeho Kim2, Hyoung-Kyu Song1,*

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.67, No.3, pp. 3057-3070, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.015673

    Abstract Massive multiple input multiple output (MIMO) has become essential for the increase of capacity as the millimeter-wave (mmWave) communication is considered. Also, hybrid beamforming systems have been studied since full-digital beamforming is impractical due to high cost and power consumption of the radio frequency (RF) chains. This paper proposes a hybrid beamforming scheme to improve the spectral efficiency for multi-user MIMO (MU-MIMO) systems. In a frequency selective fading environment, hybrid beamforming schemes suffer from performance degradation since the analog precoder performs the same precoding for all subcarriers. To mitigate performance degradation, this paper uses the average channel covariance matrix for… More >

  • Open Access


    A Novel Broadband Antenna Design for 5G Applications

    Omar A. Saraereh*

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.67, No.1, pp. 1121-1136, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.015066

    Abstract Wireless communication is one of the rapidly-growing fields of the communication industry. This continuous growth motivates the antenna community to design new radiating structures to meet the needs of the market. The 5G wireless communication has received a lot of attention from both academia and industry and significant efforts have been made to improve different aspects, such as data rate, latency, mobility, reliability and QoS. Antenna design has received renewed attention in the last decade due to its potential applications in 5G, IoT, mmWave, and massive MIMO. This paper proposes a novel design of broadband antenna for 5G mmWave and… More >

  • Open Access


    Millimeter-Wave Concurrent Beamforming: A Multi-Player Multi-Armed Bandit Approach

    Ehab Mahmoud Mohamed1, 2, *, Sherief Hashima3, 4, Kohei Hatano3, 5, Hani Kasban4, Mohamed Rihan6

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.65, No.3, pp. 1987-2007, 2020, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2020.011816

    Abstract The communication in the Millimeter-wave (mmWave) band, i.e., 30~300 GHz, is characterized by short-range transmissions and the use of antenna beamforming (BF). Thus, multiple mmWave access points (APs) should be installed to fully cover a target environment with gigabits per second (Gbps) connectivity. However, inter-beam interference prevents maximizing the sum rates of the established concurrent links. In this paper, a reinforcement learning (RL) approach is proposed for enabling mmWave concurrent transmissions by finding out beam directions that maximize the long-term average sum rates of the concurrent links. Specifically, the problem is formulated as a multiplayer multiarmed bandit (MAB), where mmWave… More >

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