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  • Open Access


    Defected Ground Structure Multiple Input-Output Antenna For Wireless Applications

    Ramya Sridhar1,*, Vijayalakshimi Patteeswaran2

    Computer Systems Science and Engineering, Vol.46, No.2, pp. 2109-2122, 2023, DOI:10.32604/csse.2023.036781

    Abstract In this paper, the investigation of a novel compact 2 × 2, 2 × 1, and 1 × 1 Ultra-Wide Band (UWB) based Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) antenna with Defected Ground Structure (DGS) is employed. The proposed Electromagnetic Radiation Structures (ERS) is composed of multiple radiating elements. These MIMO antennas are designed and analyzed with and without DGS. The feeding is introduced by a microstrip-fed line to significantly moderate the radiating structure’s overall size, which is 60 × 40 × 1 mm. The high directivity and divergence characteristics are attained by introducing the microstrip-fed lines perpendicular to each other. And the… More >

  • Open Access


    Triple-Band Metamaterial Inspired Antenna for Future Terahertz (THz) Applications

    Adel Y. I. Ashyap1, S. Alamri2, S. H. Dahlan1,*, Z. Z. Abidin3, M. Inam Abbasi4, Huda A. Majid2, M. R. Kamarudin1, Y. A. Al-Gumaei5, M. Hashim Dahri6

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.72, No.1, pp. 1071-1087, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.025636

    Abstract For future healthcare in the terahertz (THz) band, a triple-band microstrip planar antenna integrated with metamaterial (MTM) based on a polyimide substrate is presented. The frequencies of operation are 500, 600, and 880 GHz. The triple-band capability is accomplished by etching metamaterial on the patch without affecting the overall antenna size. Instead of a partial ground plane, a full ground plane is used as a buffer to shield the body from back radiation emitted by the antenna. The overall dimension of the proposed antenna is 484 × 484 μm2. The antenna's performance is investigated based on different crucial factors, and excellent results are… More >

  • Open Access


    Adaptive Multi-Cost Routing Protocol to Enhance Lifetime for Wireless Body Area Network

    Muhammad Mateen Yaqoob1, Waqar Khurshid1, Leo Liu2, Syed Zulqarnain Arif1, Imran Ali Khan1, Osman Khalid1,*, Raheel Nawaz2

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.72, No.1, pp. 1089-1103, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.024798

    Abstract Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) technologies are emerging with extensive applications in several domains. Health is a fascinating domain of WBAN for smart monitoring of a patient's condition. An important factor to consider in WBAN is a node's lifetime. Improving the lifetime of nodes is critical to address many issues, such as utility and reliability. Existing routing protocols have addressed the energy conservation problem but considered only a few parameters, thus affecting their performance. Moreover, most of the existing schemes did not consider traffic prioritization which is critical in WBANs. In this paper, an adaptive multi-cost routing protocol is proposed… More >

  • Open Access


    Authentication in Wireless Body Area Network: Taxonomy and Open Challenges

    Abdullah M. Almuhaideb, Kawther S. Alqudaihi*

    Journal on Internet of Things, Vol.3, No.4, pp. 159-182, 2021, DOI:10.32604/jiot.2021.018088

    Abstract Wearable body area network (WBAN) aids the communication between the health providers and patients by supporting health monitoring services. It assists the users to maintain their health status records by collecting the body signals and transmitting them for further processing measurements. However, sensor data are publicly transferred through insecure network that facilitates the attacker malicious acts like performing masquerading attack, man in the middle, and snooping. Several authentication techniques were suggested to levitate the security of the communication channels to preserve the user data from exposure. Moreover, authentication schemes aid plenty of security issues related to user and data privacy,… More >

  • Open Access


    An Energy-Efficient Mobile Agent-Based Data Aggregation Scheme for Wireless Body Area Networks

    Gulzar Mehmood1, Muhammad Zahid Khan1, Muhammad Fayaz2, Mohammad Faisal1, Haseeb Ur Rahman1, Jeonghwan Gwak3,4,5,6,*

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.70, No.3, pp. 5929-5948, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.020546

    Abstract Due to the advancement in wireless technology and miniaturization, Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) have gained enormous popularity, having various applications, especially in the healthcare sector. WBANs are intrinsically resource-constrained; therefore, they have specific design and development requirements. One such highly desirable requirement is an energy-efficient and reliable Data Aggregation (DA) mechanism for WBANs. The efficient and reliable DA may ultimately push the network to operate without much human intervention and further extend the network lifetime. The conventional client-server DA paradigm becomes unsuitable and inefficient for WBANs when a large amount of data is generated in the network. Similarly, in… More >

  • Open Access


    An Efficient Energy Aware Routing Mechanism for Wireless Body Area Networks

    Wejdan Wasel Aljaghthami*, Mohammad Haseeb Zafar, Afraa Zuhair Attiah

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.70, No.1, pp. 1111-1126, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.019912

    Abstract The accelerated development of wireless network technology has resulted in the emergence of Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN), which is a technology commonly used in the medical field. WBAN consists of tiny sensor nodes that interconnect with each other and set in the human body to collect and transmit the patient data to the physician, to monitor the patients remotely. These nodes typically have limited battery energy that led to a shortage of network lifetime. Therefore, energy efficiency is considered one of the most demanding challenges in routing design for WBAN. Many proposed routing mechanisms in WBAN did not cover… More >

  • Open Access


    A Novel Hybrid Clustering Based Transmission Protocol for Wireless Body Area Networks

    Neelam Sharma1,*, Harshita Chadha2, Karan Singh3, B. M. Singh4, Nitish Pathak5

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.69, No.2, pp. 2459-2473, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.014305

    Abstract Wireless sensor networks are a collection of intelligent sensor devices that are connected to one another and have the capability to exchange information packets amongst themselves. In recent years, this field of research has become increasingly popular due to the host of useful applications it can potentially serve. A deep analysis of the concepts associated with this domain reveals that the two main problems that are to be tackled here are throughput enhancement and network security improvement. The present article takes on one of these two issues namely the throughput enhancement. For the purpose of improving network productivity, a hybrid… More >

  • Open Access


    Black Hole and Sink Hole Attack Detection in Wireless Body Area Networks

    Rajesh Kumar Dhanaraj1, Lalitha Krishnasamy2, Oana Geman3,*, Diana Roxana Izdrui4

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.68, No.2, pp. 1949-1965, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.015363

    Abstract In Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) with respect to health care, sensors are positioned inside the body of an individual to transfer sensed data to a central station periodically. The great challenges posed to healthcare WBANs are the black hole and sink hole attacks. Data from deployed sensor nodes are attracted by sink hole or black hole nodes while grabbing the shortest path. Identifying this issue is quite a challenging task as a small variation in medicine intake may result in a severe illness. This work proposes a hybrid detection framework for attacks by applying a Proportional Coinciding Score (PCS)… More >

  • Open Access


    Remote Health Monitoring Using IoT-Based Smart Wireless Body Area Network

    Farhan Aadil1, Bilal Mehmood1, Najam Ul Hasan2, Sangsoon Lim3,*, Sadia Ejaz1, Noor Zaman4

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.68, No.2, pp. 2499-2513, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.014647

    Abstract A wireless body area network (WBAN) consists of tiny health-monitoring sensors implanted in or placed on the human body. These sensors are used to collect and communicate human medical and physiological data and represent a subset of the Internet of Things (IoT) systems. WBANs are connected to medical servers that monitor patients’ health. This type of network can protect critical patients’ lives due to the ability to monitor patients’ health continuously and remotely. The inter-WBAN communication provides a dynamic environment for patients allowing them to move freely. However, during patient movement, the WBAN patient nodes may become out of range… More >

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