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  • Open Access


    State Estimation Moving Window Gradient Iterative Algorithm for Bilinear Systems Using the Continuous Mixed p-norm Technique

    Wentao Liu, Junxia Ma, Weili Xiong*

    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.134, No.2, pp. 873-892, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2022.020565

    Abstract This paper studies the parameter estimation problems of the nonlinear systems described by the bilinear state space models in the presence of disturbances. A bilinear state observer is designed for deriving identification algorithms to estimate the state variables using the input-output data. Based on the bilinear state observer, a novel gradient iterative algorithm is derived for estimating the parameters of the bilinear systems by means of the continuous mixed p-norm cost function. The gain at each iterative step adapts to the data quality so that the algorithm has good robustness to the noise disturbance. Furthermore, to improve the performance of… More >

  • Open Access


    Achieving State Space Reduction in Generated Ajax Web Application State Machine

    Nadeem Fakhar Malik1,*, Aamer Nadeem1, Muddassar Azam Sindhu2

    Intelligent Automation & Soft Computing, Vol.33, No.1, pp. 429-455, 2022, DOI:10.32604/iasc.2022.023423

    Abstract The testing of Ajax (Asynchronous JavaScript and XML) web applications poses novel challenges for testers because Ajax constructs dynamic web applications by using Asynchronous communication and run time Document Object Model (DOM) manipulation. Ajax involves extreme dynamism, which induces novel kind of issues like state explosion, triggering state changes and unreachable states etc. that require more demanding web-testing methods. Model based testing is amongst the effective approaches to detect faults in web applications. However, the state model generated for an Ajax application can be enormous and may be hit by state explosion problem for large number of user action based… More >

  • Open Access


    A Generalized State Space Average Model for Parallel DC-to-DC Converters

    Hasan Alrajhi*

    Computer Systems Science and Engineering, Vol.41, No.2, pp. 717-734, 2022, DOI:10.32604/csse.2022.021279

    Abstract The high potentiality of integrating renewable energies, such as photovoltaic, into a modern electrical microgrid system, using DC-to-DC converters, raises some issues associated with controller loop design and system stability. The generalized state space average model (GSSAM) concept was consequently introduced to design a DC-to-DC converter controller in order to evaluate DC-to-DC converter performance and to conduct stability studies. This paper presents a GSSAM for parallel DC-to-DC converters, namely: buck, boost, and buck-boost converters. The rationale of this study is that modern electrical systems, such as DC networks, hybrid microgrids, and electric ships, are formed by parallel DC-to-DC converters with… More >

  • Open Access


    Robust Remaining Useful Life Estimation Based on an Improved Unscented Kalman Filtering Method

    Shenkun Zhao, Chao Jiang*, Zhe Zhang, Xiangyun Long

    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.123, No.3, pp. 1151-1173, 2020, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2020.08867

    Abstract In the Prognostics and Health Management (PHM), remaining useful life (RUL) is very important and utilized to ensure the reliability and safety of the operation of complex mechanical systems. Recently, unscented Kalman filtering (UKF) has been applied widely in the RUL estimation. For a degradation system, the relationship between its monitored measurements and its degradation states is assumed to be nonlinear in the conventional UKF. However, in some special degradation systems, their monitored measurements have a linear relation with their degradation states. For these special problems, it may bring estimation errors to use the UKF method directly. Besides, many uncertain… More >

  • Open Access


    Differential Quadrature and Cubature Methods for Steady-State Space-Fractional Advection-Diffusion Equations

    Guofei Pang1, Wen Chen1,2, K.Y. Sze3

    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.97, No.4, pp. 299-322, 2014, DOI:10.3970/cmes.2014.097.299

    Abstract Space-fractional advection-diffusion equation is a promising tool to describe the solute anomalous transport in underground water, and it has been extended to multi-dimensions with the help of weighted, fractional directional diffusion operator [Benson, Wheatcraft and Meerschaert (2000)]. Due to the nonlocal property of the space-fractional derivative, it is always a challenge to develop an efficient numerical solution method. The present paper extends the polynomialbased differential quadrature and cubature methods to the solution of steady-state spatial fractional advection-diffusion equations on a rectangular domain. An improved differential cubature method is proposed which accelerates the solution process considerably. Owing to the global interpolation… More >

  • Open Access


    A State Space Differential Reproducing Kernel Method for the Buckling Analysis of Carbon Nanotube-Reinforced Composite Circular Hollow Cylinders

    Chih-Ping Wu1,2, Ruei-Yong Jiang1

    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.97, No.3, pp. 239-279, 2014, DOI:10.3970/cmes.2014.097.239

    Abstract A state space differential reproducing kernel (DRK) method is developed for the three-dimensional (3D) buckling analysis of simply-supported, carbon nanotube-reinforced composite (CNTRC) circular hollow cylinders and laminated composite ones under axial compression. The single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and polymer are used as the reinforcements and matrix, respectively, to constitute the CNTRC cylinder. Three different distributions of CNTs varying in the thickness direction are considered (i.e., the uniform distribution and functionally graded rhombus-, and X-type ones), and the through-thickness distributions of effective material properties of the cylinder are determined using the rule of mixtures. The 3D linear buckling theory is used,… More >

  • Open Access


    A State Space Approach for the Analysis of Doubly Curved Functionally Graded Elastic and Piezoelectric Shells

    Chih-Ping Wu1,2, Kuo-Yen Liu2

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.6, No.3, pp. 177-200, 2007, DOI:10.3970/cmc.2007.006.177

    Abstract Based on the three-dimensional (3D) piezoelectricity, we present the exact solutions of simply-supported, doubly curved functionally graded (FG) elastic and piezoelectric shells using a state space approach. A set of the dimensionless coordinates and field variables is introduced in the present formulation to prevent from the ill-conditioned problem in the relevant computation. By means of direct elimination, we reduce the twenty-two basic differential equations to a set of eight state variable equations (or state equations) with variable coefficients of the thickness coordinate. By means of the successive approximation method, we artificially divide the shell into a NL-layered shell and the… More >

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