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  • Open Access


    Green Synthesis for Lignin Plasticization: Aqueous Graft Copolymerization with Methyl Methacrylate

    Sinto Jacob1, Manjusri Misra1,2, Amar Mohanty1,2,*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.1, No.2, pp. 154-165, 2013, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2012.634107

    Abstract This study investigated the use of potassium persulfate (KPS) as an initiator for the grafting of methyl methacrylate (MMA) onto softwood kraft lignin. Ammonium iron (II) sulfate hexahydrate was used as a catalyst to overcome the inherent inhibition of lignin to free radical grafting and to make lignin copolymer under mild conditions using an aqueous medium. The infl uence of temperature, initiator concentration, time of reaction and monomer concentration on percentage of grafting were studied. A maximum of 31% grafting was achieved at 55ο C. Graft copolymer was identifi ed from the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrum by the new… More >

  • Open Access


    Valorization of Tunisian Pomegranate Peel Tannins in Green Adhesives Formulation

    Houda Saad1,2,*, Antonio Pizzi3,4, Bertrand Charrier2, Naceur Ayed1, Karsten Rode5, Fatima Charrier - El Bouhtoury2

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.3, No.1, pp. 34-43, 2015, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2014.634130

    Abstract The possible use of Tunisian pomegranate tannins in wood adhesive formulation was studied for the fi rst time. Colorimetric tests, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-fl ight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry were used to examine pomegranate tannins. Analysis showed that pomegranate peels are rich in hydrolyzable tannins. The Stiasny number tests showed the low reactivity of pomegranate tannin extract to formaldehyde and thus the diffi culty of using it in wood adhesive formulation. Thermomechanical analysis (TMA) and strength analysis of pomegranate tannin/hexamine-based resin showed weak bonding properties. More >

  • Open Access


    Desorption Behavior and Thermogravimetric Analysis of Bio-Hardeners

    Benoit Ndiwe1,2,3, Antonio Pizzi4,*, Hubert Chapuis5, Noel Konai6, Lionel Karga7, Pierre Girods4, Raidandi Danwe6,8

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.8, pp. 2015-2027, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.019891

    Abstract In this work, the thermal degradation and drying of bio-hardeners are investigated. Four bio-hardeners based on exudates of Senegalia senegal, Vachellia nilotica, Vachellia seyal, and Acacia Siebteriana were analyzed by FTIR and thermogravimetric analysis, and a desorption study was also conducted. The analysis by infrared spectroscopy indicates the existence of oligomers of different types all giving 5-hydroxy-2-hydroxymethylfuran and 2, 5-dihydroxymethylfuran which are then the real hardening molecules. The pyrolysis of these extracts reveals three main regions of mass loss, a first region is located between 25°C and 110°C reflecting the loss of water from the adhesive and the formation of… More > Graphic Abstract

    Desorption Behavior and Thermogravimetric Analysis of Bio-Hardeners

  • Open Access


    Curing Kinetics of Tannin and Lignin Biobased Adhesives Determined by DSC and ABES

    Jaša Saražin1, Ida Poljanšek1, Antonio Pizzi2, Milan Šernek1,*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.8, pp. 2117-2131, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.019602

    Abstract The curing process of two biobased adhesives: pine tanninhexamine (TH) and organosolv lignin non-isocyanate polyurethane (NIPU), suitable for interior nonstructural use, were compared with commercial urea-formaldehyde (UF) adhesive. Changes in chemical structure before and after the curing process were observed with Fouriertransform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The process of adhesive curing was monitored with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and the automated bonding evaluation system (ABES). Both DSC and ABES measurements confirmed UF as the fastest and NIPU as the slowest curing adhesive observed. Taking into account the ABES results, the optimal pressing parameters for the TH adhesive would be 4 min… More >

  • Open Access


    Calcium chloride linked camel milk derived casein nanoparticles for the delivery of sorafenib in hepatocarcinoma cells


    BIOCELL, Vol.46, No.1, pp. 127-136, 2022, DOI:10.32604/biocell.2021.015932

    Abstract Sorafenib, a multikinase inhibitor used for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma, is limited by its low oral bioavailability. To overcome this drawback, we have developed novel camel milk casein-derived nanoparticles as a drug delivery system. Camel milk casein is not only biocompatible on oral administration but is actually a dietary protein of pharmaceutical relevance. Casein is used because of its amphiphilic nature, self-assembling property, ability to show sustained release, and capability of encapsulating both hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs. In this study, camel milk casein nanoparticles loaded with sorafenib were developed and characterized. Characterization of casein nanoparticles was done by dynamic… More >

  • Open Access


    Biochemical and Thermal Analysis of Spirulina Biomass through FTIR, TGA, CHN

    Ruma Arora Soni1,*, K. Sudhakar1,3,4,*, R. S. Rana2

    Energy Engineering, Vol.118, No.4, pp. 1045-1056, 2021, DOI:10.32604/EE.2021.016082

    Abstract Spirulina is a sort of algae that grows in both fresh and seawater. It is considered the Earth’s most nutritionally dense food. Certain claims about Spirulina’s beneficial health properties are attributed to the relatively high protein content of the cells. Spirulina’s lipid, fatty acid profile, and biochemical composition have received little attention. The purpose of this study is to investigate the nature and decomposition of spirulina biomass at various temperatures. In the present investigation, Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and elemental analysis were used to study spirulina biomass biochemical characteristics. The optimal content of spirulina protein, lipid, and the… More >

  • Open Access


    Organosolv Lignin for Non-Isocyanate Based Polyurethanes (NIPU) as Wood Adhesive

    Jaša Saražin1, Antonio Pizzi2, Siham Amirou2, Detlef Schmiedl3, Milan Šernek1,*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.9, No.5, pp. 881-907, 2021, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2021.015047

    Abstract A non-isocyanate-based polyurethane (NIPU) wood adhesive was produced from organosolv lignin, which is a bio-sourced raw material, available in large quantities and produced as a by-product of the paper industry. The formulation of this new lignin-based NIPU adhesive, which is presented, was chemically characterised by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time of Flight (MALDI ToF) mass spectrometry and by Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) spectrometry analyses. The oligomers formed were determined and showed that the three species involved in the NIPU adhesive preparation were formed by the co-reaction of the three reagents used: lignin, dimethyl carbonate, and hexamethylene diamine. Linear and branched… More >

  • Open Access


    Synthesis of Green Adhesive with Tannin Extracted from Eucalyptus Bark for Potential Use in Wood Composites

    Medjda Amari1, Kamel Khimeche1,*, Abdelkader Hima2 , Redouane Chebout3, Abderahmane Mezroua1

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.9, No.3, pp. 463-475, 2021, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2021.013680

    Abstract Recently, the exploitation of renewable plant resources in the formulation of adhesives is very promising for their availability at low coast, as well as their richness in biomolecules such as polyphenols. In this way, many research studies tannins extracted from different sources such as mimosa, quebracho, and pine have been the subject of very satisfactory recent studies. In this paper, a new complete characterization of the tannins extracted from the bark of eucalyptus globulus harvested from two regions in Algeria was achieved. The structural characterization enabled us to confirm the richness in condensed tannins, particularly in procyanidin and prodelphinidin units.… More >

  • Open Access


    Analysis of the Mechanism and Effectiveness of Lignin in Improving the High-Temperature Thermal Stability of Asphalt

    Cheng Cheng1,2,*, Weiwei Sun2, Bo Hu3, Guixiang Tao2, Chao Peng2, Yanjuan Tian4, Shujuan Wu4,5

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.8, No.10, pp. 1243-1255, 2020, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2020.012054

    Abstract The use of lignin, which is a by-product of the pulp and paper industry, in the development of asphalt binders would contribute to waste reduction, providing environmental, economic, and social benefits. In this study, samples of lignin-modified asphalt binder samples with different content of lignin (3%, 6%, 9%, 12%, and 15%) and unmodified asphalt (control) were tested using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), dynamic shear rheometer (DSR), and thermogravimetry. The mechanism and effectiveness of lignin in improving the thermal stability of asphalt at high temperatures were analyzed. The FTIR analysis shows that no new characteristic absorption peak is seen in… More >

  • Open Access


    Application of the Principles of “Green Chemistry” for the Synthesis of 10-Undecylenic Aliphatic Esters with Antimicrobial Activity

    Dragomir Vassilev1,*, Nadezhda Petkova2, Yulian Tumbarski3, Milena Koleva1, Panteley Denev2

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.8, No.6, pp. 675-686, 2020, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2020.09279

    Abstract Undenicylic acid (10:1) is known as an antifungal agent and an active ingredient of many topical medicines [1–6]. The present research investigates the preparation of aliphatic esters of 10-undecylic acid with butanol and i-amyl alcohol by the conventional and ultrasound-assisted syntheses as well as the structural elucidation of the resulting compounds, by FTIR and NMR spectroscopy. The antimicrobial properties of the obtained 10-undecylenic esters were tested against Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus; Enterococcus faecalis; Listeria monocytogenes), Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli; Salmonella sp.) and filamentous fungi (Penicillium sp.; Aspergillus niger; Fusarium moniliforme) using the conventional agar-well diffusion assay. The results demonstrated that… More >

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