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  • Open Access


    Antifungal Potential of Beauveria bassiana on Solanum lycopersicum L. Infected with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici

    Henry López-López1, Nancy Ruiz-Lau2, Rocío Meza-Gordillo1, Víctor Manuel Ruiz-Valdiviezo1, Joseph Galthier Robledo-Luchetti1, Carlos Alberto Lecona-Guzmán1, Juan José Villalobos-Maldonado1, Luc Dendooven3, Joaquín Adolfo Montes-Molina1,*

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.92, No.4, pp. 1235-1255, 2023, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2023.025716

    Abstract The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of Beauveria bassiana (Bb 1205) on controlling Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol 17108) in tomato plants in greenhouse conditions. Inoculation of Bb 1205 was the most promising among the agronomic variables and expression of the activity of the enzymes β-1,3-glucanases and chitinases. Inoculation of Bb 1205 occurred at a concentration of 1 × 108 conidia·mL−1, which was administered onto the leaves, directly into the soil and via injection. Infection with Fol 17108 occurred with 1 × 106 spores·mL−1, which were added directly to the soil. Spectrophotometry was used for… More >

  • Open Access


    Extraction and Characterization of Litopenaeus vannamei’s Shell as Potential Sources of Chitosan Biopolymers

    Che Engku Noramalina Che Engku Chik1, Amyra Suryatie Kamaruzzan1, Ahmad Ideris Abdul Rahim1, Fathurrahman Lananan2,3, Azizah Endut4, Siti Aslamyah5, Nor Azman Kasan1,*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.11, No.3, pp. 1181-1197, 2023, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2023.022755

    Abstract Chitin is the second most abundant polysaccharide, produced mainly as an industrial waste stream during crustacean processing. Chitin can be derived into chitosan through the deacetylation process. Conversion of shrimp waste into chitosan via the deacetylation process could be considered a practical approach for shell waste remediation. In this study, chitosan’s physicochemical characteristics extracted from two types of Pacific white leg shrimp, L. vannamei’s shell (i.e., rough and smooth), were compared with commercial chitosan. The yield, moisture, ash, solubility, water and fat binding capacity were measured. The degree of deacetylation (DDA) was calculated using FTIR, and their chemical Structure was… More > Graphic Abstract

    Extraction and Characterization of <i>Litopenaeus vannamei</i>’s Shell as Potential Sources of Chitosan Biopolymers

  • Open Access


    Kinetics of the Demineralization Reaction of Deproteinized Lobster Shells Using CO2

    Miguel Ángel Ramírez1, Luis Alfonso, Patricia González2, Juan Reinerio Fagundo2, Margaret Suarez3, Clara Melian3, Tania Rodríguez1, Carlos Peniche4,*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.3, No.1, pp. 73-80, 2015, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2014.634116

    Abstract The demineralization kinetics of deproteinized lobster shells using CO2 were studied. Demineralization reaction proceeds until the concentration of Ca+2 in solution reaches an equilibrium value. The introduction of a cation exchange resin (cationite), in an open system for CO2 , allows replacement of the solution Ca2+ ions by Na+ ions, whereby the equilibrium shifts and an effective dissolution of the exoskeletons’ calcite is achieved. The mathematical relationships between the conductivity of the solution and the concentrations of major ions, the rate constants and kinetic parameters of the reaction in the absence and presence of the resin were obtained. It was… More >

  • Open Access


    Characterization and Pathogenicity of Pseudopestalotiopsis vietnamensis Causing Gray Blight of Wuyi Rock Tea (Camellia sinensis) in China and Specific Mechanisms of Disease Infection

    Guangheng Wu1,#,*, Lu Rui2,3,#, Xiang Lu4, Libo Han2, Gan Lv1, Xianyu Fu5, Jinxian Liu5, Nong Zhou3, Chuanhai Zhang1

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.92, No.1, pp. 131-147, 2023, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.021919

    Abstract Gray blight disease (GBD) causes significant losses in tea production in China. Although genes and biological processes involved in resistance to fungal disease in tea plants have been identified, specific mechanisms of the GBD infection process remain unknown. In this study, morphological and multi-gene (TEF-TUB-ITS) phylogenetic characteristics were used to identify isolate CLBB1 of Pseudopestalotiopsis vietnamensis. Pathogenicity tests confirmed that isolate CLBB1 from tea leaves caused GBD in the susceptible tea cultivar Wuyi Rock (Camellia sinensis var. sinensis cv. Shuixian). Spores began to germinate 24 h after infection (hai), and after 48 h, elongated fungal hyphae formed from a single conidium. Transcriptome… More >

  • Open Access


    Potential Economic Value of Chitin and Its Derivatives as Major Biomaterials of Seafood Waste, with Particular Reference to Southeast Asia

    Hsiao Wei Tan1, Zhi Yin Joan Lim2, Nur Airina Muhamad3, Fong Fong Liew4,*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.4, pp. 909-938, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.018183

    Abstract With a growing population, changes in consumerism behavior and trends in consumption in Indo-Pacific Asia, our seafood processing and consumption practices produce a large volume of waste products. There are several advantages in regulating and sustaining shellfish processing industries. The major advantage of waste management is that it leads to better conservation of natural resources in the long run. Shrimp shell waste contains useful biomaterials, which are still untapped due to inadequate waste disposal and solid waste management. Chitin, the major component of shell waste, can be extracted either chemically or biologically. The chemical extraction approaches, which use acids and… More > Graphic Abstract

    Potential Economic Value of Chitin and Its Derivatives as Major Biomaterials of Seafood Waste, with Particular Reference to Southeast Asia

  • Open Access


    A Review of Various Sources of Chitin and Chitosan in Nature

    Benedict Terkula Iber1,2,*, Nor Azman Kasan1,*, Donald Torsabo1,2, Jenifer Wese Omuwa2

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.4, pp. 1097-1123, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.018142

    Abstract Chitin was first discovered by its name from the Greek word “chiton”, which means “mail coat”. It is indeed a polysaccharide made up of naturally occurring acetyl-D-glucosamine monomers. Hatchett was the first researcher who extracted chitin from the shells of mollusks (crabs and lobsters), prawns, and crayfish in 1799. Later in 1811, Henri Braconnot discovered chitin in the cell walls of mushrooms and called it “fungine”. Chitin and chitosan are abundant in the biosphere as essential components of many organisms’ exoskeletons and as by-products of the global seafood industry. The biopolymer must be deacetylated before chitosan can be produced. It… More >

  • Open Access


    Two Routes to Produce Chitosan from Agaricus bisporus

    Abdelghani Hassainia1, Hamid Satha1,*, Boufi Sami2

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.8, No.1, pp. 101-111, 2020, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2020.07725

    Abstract Two methods were used to produce chitosan by deacetylation of chitin which was extracted from Agaricus bisporus stipes. The first one gives chitosan 1 with low yield of 2.5%, degree of acetylation (DA) of 4%, molecular weight (MW) of 2.973 × 105 (g/mol). The second route produces chitosan 2 with higher yield of 41%, degree of acetylation (DA) of 17.23%, molecular weight (MW) of 2.939 × 105 (g/mol). Both chitosans were characterized by XRD, FTIR, 1 H-NMR spectroscopy nuclear magnetic resonance of proton. The molecular weight (MW) was determined by size exclusion chromatography (SEC). Thermal analysis shows that both chitosans… More >

  • Open Access


    Comparison of isozyme transformation in maize as a result of insertion of the chitinase gene

    Yan PM1, HF Zhang1, Q Wang1, XY Yan1, Y Sun2

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.79, pp. 117-121, 2010, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2010.79.117

    Abstract Isozymes of peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), esterase (EST) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were analyzed on transgenic maize (with external chitinase gene) and its parent by vertical polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). This study was made using shoots at the fourth leaf stage. Results showed that: POD and EST were detected in 6 bands. POD-2 and POD-3 were present at the bud and seedling stages. POD-1, POD-4, POD-5 and POD-6 were only present at the seedling stage. POD-6 expressed stronger in the transgenic maize with chitinase than in its parent. EST-2 was present only at the bud stage, and its expression in… More >

  • Open Access


    Chitinase, chitosanase, and antifungal activities from thermophilic streptomycetes isolated from compost

    González-Franco AC1, L Robles-Hernández1, JL Strap2

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.86, pp. 14-27, 2017, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2017.86.014

    Abstract The Streptomyces genus comprises a large and diverse group of bacteria, many of which are commercially exploited for the production of antibiotics and lytic enzymes. The thermophilic species are less studied than the predominant mesophilic species. However, the first ones are a potential source of thermostable bioactive products and enzymes with novel properties. In this study, two selected thermophilic streptomycetes were identified and their chitinolytic activities were evaluated. The identification of these two isolates was performed by microscopic morphology, partial 16S rDNA sequences, and its phylogenetic analysis. To study the chitinolytic activities of these isolates, the effects of colloidal chitin… More >

  • Open Access


    Conversion of Waste Parasitic Insect (Hylobius abietis L.) into Antioxidative, Antimicrobial and Biodegradable Films

    Murat Kaya1,*, Idris Sargin1, Povilas Mulerčikas2, Jalel Labidi3, Asier M. Salaberria3, Yavuz S. Cakmak1, Sonata Kazlauskaitė2, Demet Erdonmez4, Vykintas Baublys5

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.7, No.3, pp. 215-226, 2019, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2019.00002

    Abstract Hylobius abietis is a plant parasitic insect belonging to the order Coleoptera and which causes severe damages to coniferous forests in Northern and Eastern Europe. This current study is aimed to provide a new viewpoint into the waste of this insect by producing chitosan. Dry insect corpses consisted of 27.9% chitin and 86.2% of the chitin was converted into the chitosan. FT-IR spectra analyses confirmed the purity and the deacetylation degree of the produced chitosan (molecular weight of chitosan; 7.3 kDa). This chitosan exhibited antimicrobial activity against 18 bacterial strains. Further, biodegradable chitosan composite films with β-carotene were produced. Antioxidant… More >

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