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  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Quantitative Extraction of p-Coumaric Acid and Ferulic Acid in Different Gramineous Materials and Structural Changes of Residual Alkali Lignin

    Tanhao Zhang, Shuo Zhang, Wu Lan*, Fengxia Yue*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.11, No.2, pp. 555-566, 2023, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2023.025701

    Abstract Ferulic acid (FA) and p-coumaric acid (pCA) in bagasse, wheat straw, corn straw, and corncob were extracted by alkaline hydrolysis and characterized by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). It was found that the FA and most of the pCA in gramineous biomass could be dissociated and released after being treated with 1 M NaOH at 100°C for 4 h. The yields of pCA/FA in bagasse, wheat straw, corn straw, and corncob determined by GC-FID are 39.8/11.5, 13.7/11.0, 28.0/11.0, and 35.1/14.5 mg/g, respectively. The raw materials and the treated solid residues were characterized by gel-state 2D Heteronuclear Single… More > Graphic Abstract

    Quantitative Extraction of <i>p</i>-Coumaric Acid and Ferulic Acid in Different Gramineous Materials and Structural Changes of Residual Alkali Lignin

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Plasma Treatment Induced Chemical Changes of Alkali Lignin to Enhance the Performances of Lignin-Phenol-Formaldehyde Resin Adhesive

    Zhigang Wu1,#, Sicheng Chen1,#, Jiankun Liang2, Lifen Li1, Xuedong Xi3,4, Xue Deng1, Bengang Zhang3,*, Hong Lei4,*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.9, No.11, pp. 1959-1972, 2021, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2021.016786

    Abstract Alkali lignin was processed by plasma and then used in modification of phenol formaldehyde resin in this study. Chemical structural changes of lignin which was processed by plasma as well as bonding strength, tensile property, curing performance and thermal property of the prepared phenol formaldehyde resin which was modified by the plasma processed lignin were analyzed. Results demonstrated that: (1) Alkali lignin was degraded after the plasma processing. The original groups were destroyed, and the aromatic rings collected abundant free radicals and oxygen-containing functional groups like hydroxyls, carbonyls, carboxyls and acyls were introduced into increase the reaction activity of lignin… More > Graphic Abstract

    Plasma Treatment Induced Chemical Changes of Alkali Lignin to Enhance the Performances of Lignin-Phenol-Formaldehyde Resin Adhesive

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Synthetic Process of Bio-Based Phenol Formaldehyde Adhesive Derived from Demethylated Wheat Straw Alkali Lignin and Its Curing Behavior

    Yan Song1,2, Zhixin Wang3, Xin Zhang4, Rong Zhang1, Jinchun Li1,2,*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.9, No.5, pp. 943-957, 2021, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2021.014131

    Abstract Lignin is a natural biopolymer with a complex three-dimensional network, commercially obtained from waste liquid of paper pulp and bioethanol production, and could be a candidate for preparation of environment-friendly bio-based polyphenol material. In the present work, the demethylated wheat straw alkali lignin (D-Lig), prepared by demethylation of wheat straw alkali lignin (Lig) using an in-situ generated Lewis acid, was used to synthesize bio-based phenol formaldehyde resin adhesive (D-LPF) applied in plywood. Effects of synthetic process’s factors, including lignin substitution for phenol, NaOH concentration and molar ratio of formaldehyde to phenol, on the bonding strength and free formaldehyde content of… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    A Bifunctional Brønsted Acidic Deep Eutectic Solvent to Dissolve and Catalyze the Depolymerization of Alkali Lignin

    Lifen Li1, Zhigang Wu1, Xuedong Xi2, Baoyu Liu3, Yan Cao3, Hailong Xu3, Yingcheng Hu4,*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.9, No.2, pp. 219-235, 2021, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2021.012099

    Abstract Lignin is an abundant renewable macromolecular material in nature, and degradation of lignin to improve its hydroxyl content is the key to its efficient use. Alkali lignin (AL) was treated with Brønsted acidic deep eutectic solvent (DES) based on choline chloride and p-toluenesulfonic acid at mild reaction temperature, the structure of the lignin before and after degradation, as well as the composition of small molecules of lignin were analyzed in order to investigate the chemical structure changes of lignin with DES treatment, and the degradation mechanism of lignin in this acidic DES was elucidated in this work. FTIR and NMR… More >

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