Home / Journals / PHYTON / Vol.92, No.2, 2023

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Calcium (Ca2+) plays a pivotal role in various signal transduction pathways. Calcineurin B-like proteins (CBLs) are a unique group of Ca2+ sensors that decode Ca2+ signals by activating the plant specific protein kinase known as the CBL-interacting protein kinase (CIPK). In plants, the CBL-CIPK signaling network regulates multiple signals in response to different extracellular cues including abiotic stress. However, the genome wide annotation and expression patterns of CBLs and CIPKs in woody cutting flower plants are still unclear. In this study, a total number of 7 CBLs (RcCBLs) and 17 CIPKs (RcCIPKs) genes, divided into four and five subfamilies, respectively, were identified from the rose genome. All RcCBLs possess a classic elongation factor-hand (EF-hand) domain, while all RcCIPKs possess both the classic kinase and NAF domains. Most RcCBLs were predicted to be plasma membrane localized, whereas most RcCIPKs were predicted to be cytoplasmic localized. Synteny analysis showed that one RcCBL gene pair and five RcCIPK gene pairs have gone through whole genome duplication events. Promoter cis-element prediction assays indicated that RcCBLs and RcCIPKs could function in different abiotic stress responses in rose plants. Further quantitative real-time PCR analysis demonstrated that RcCBLs and RcCIPKs were expressed in different organs with overlapped but distinct patterns in response to various abiotic stresses. The findings in this work will provide fundamental information and gene resources for further functional research on RcCBLs and RcCIPKs.
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  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    B Class Floral Homeotic Genes are Involved in the Petal Identity and Flower Meristem Determinations in Chrysanthemum morifolium

    Jiayou Liu, Lian Ding, Xue Zhang, Song Li, Yunxiao Guan, Diwen Jia, Aiping Song, Jiafu Jiang, Fadi Chen*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.92, No.2, pp. 311-331, 2023, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.023896
    Abstract Chrysanthemum morifolium, an ornamental crop with diverse forms of inflorescence, is a good model for studying flower development in Asteraceae. However, the genetic background is complex and the mechanisms of regulating flower development are still unclear. Here, we identified two natural mutant lines of chrysanthemum and named them M1 and M2 according to the severity of the phenotype. Both lines showed defects in petal identity, and the petals of the M1 line had a mild phenotype: partially loss of petal identity and conversion of petals into green, leaf-like organs. The M2 line had severe phenotypes: in addition to severe petal… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Effects of Heat Stress during Seed Filling Stage on Brassica napus Seed Oil Accumulation and Chlorophyll Fluorescence Characteristics

    Ruizhi Huang1, Huasheng Yu2, Yong Yang1, Heqin Liu2, Xuelong Wu1, Zhihong Liu1, Haiyan He1, Gengwei Wu1, Wengjia Wang1, Hua Wang1,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.92, No.2, pp. 333-348, 2023, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.023252
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Symbiotic Associations for Nutrients Management and Complexes Formation for Better Agricultural Crops Productivity under Biotic and Abiotic Stresses)
    Abstract As global temperature rise, the threat of heat stress to rapeseed production is becoming more obvious. Exploring the response characteristics of two important biological pathways, oil accumulation and photosynthesis, to heat stress during B. napus seed filling is helpful in the genetic improvement of heat-tolerant rapeseed. The effects of heat stress on seed oil accumulation and chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics of 29 B. napus germplasms with different oil content and environmental sensitivity, including 6 rapeseed varieties which exhibited environment-sensitive/insensitive and with high, medium or low oil content, were tested by whole plant heat stress or the in vitro silique culture system.… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Genome Wide Characterization of CBL-CIPK Family Genes and Their Responsive Expression in Rosa chinensis

    Lunzeng Huang1,2,#, Hongsheng Gao1,#, Ning Jiang1,2, Yunhong Xu1,2, Zijian Gong1,2, Lele Chen1,2, Shijie Xue1,2, Xiaoyan Li1, Ruichao Liu1,2, Bei Li1, Hongxia Zhang1, Chunyan Yu1,*, Xiaotong Guo1,2,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.92, No.2, pp. 349-368, 2023, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.025467
    Abstract Calcium (Ca2+) plays a pivotal role in various signal transduction pathways. Calcineurin B-like proteins (CBLs) are a unique group of Ca2+ sensors that decode Ca2+ signals by activating the plant specific protein kinase known as the CBL-interacting protein kinase (CIPK). In plants, the CBL-CIPK signaling network regulates multiple signals in response to different extracellular cues including abiotic stress. However, the genome wide annotation and expression patterns of CBLs and CIPKs in woody cutting flower plants are still unclear. In this study, a total number of 7 CBLs (RcCBLs) and 17 CIPKs (RcCIPKs) genes, divided into four and five subfamilies, respectively,… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Integrated Data Reveal the Flavonoid Biosynthesis Metabolic Pathway in Semen Ziziphi Spinosae Using Transcriptomic and Metabolomic

    Wei Tian1, Lingdi Liu1, Zhongxing Song2, Zhishu Tang2, Chunxiu Wen1, Tao Jiang1,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.92, No.2, pp. 369-382, 2023, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.023184
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Biotechnology of Plant Secondary Metabolites)
    Abstract The extract from Semen Ziziphi Spinosae (SZS) contains many secondary metabolites (flavonoids, alkaloids, and terpenoids), widely reported for their high medicinal value. In order to know the number and type of flavonoids and the regulating mechanism of flavonoid biosynthesis during the growth and development of SZS, we identified and analyzed the flavonoid metabolites and genes in SZS using metabolomic and transcriptomic. A total of 13,232 differentially expressed genes and 83 flavonoid metabolites were identified at three different growth and development stages (T1, T2, and T3) of SZS. The main flavonoid metabolic components of SZS were catechin, L-epicatechin, (–)-epigallocatechin, (+)-gallocatechin, spinosin… More >

  • Open Access

    REVIEW

    Plant-Derived Enzymes Producing Chiral Aroma Compounds and Potential Application

    Fang Dong1, Qian Fan2, Xinguo Su3,*, Lanting Zeng4,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.92, No.2, pp. 383-398, 2023, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.023185
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Biotechnology of Plant Secondary Metabolites)
    Abstract Aroma (volatile) compounds play important ecological functions in plants, and also contribute to the quality of plant-derived foods. Moreover, chiral aroma compounds affect their functions in plants and lead to different flavor quality properties. Formations of chiral aroma compounds are due to the presence of enzymes producing these compounds in plants, which are generally involved in the final biosynthetic step of the aroma compounds. Here, we review recent progress in research on the plant-derived enzymes producing chiral aroma compounds, and their changes in response to environmental factors. The chiral aroma enzymes that have been reported produce (R)-linalool, (S)-linalool, (R)-limonene, and… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Physiological and Biochemical Characteristics and Response Patterns of Salinity Stress Responsive Genes (SSRGs) in Wild Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa L.)

    Yurong Jiang1, Muhammad Yasir1, Yuefen Cao1, Lejia Hu1, Tongli Yan1, Shuijin Zhu2,*, Guoquan Lu1,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.92, No.2, pp. 399-410, 2023, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.022742
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Symbiotic Associations for Nutrients Management and Complexes Formation for Better Agricultural Crops Productivity under Biotic and Abiotic Stresses)
    Abstract Cultivating salt-tolerant crops is a feasible way to effectively utilize saline-alkali land and solve the problem of underutilization of saline soils. Quinoa, a protein-comprehensive cereal in the plant kingdom, is an exceptional crop in terms of salt stress tolerance level. It seems an excellent model for the exploration of salt-tolerance mechanisms and cultivation of salt-tolerant germplasms. In this study, the seeds and seedlings of the quinoa cultivar Shelly were treated with different concentrations of NaCl solution. The physiological, biochemical characteristics and agronomic traits were investigated, and the response patterns of three salt stress-responsive genes (SSRGs) in quinoa were determined by… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Leaf Wettability Difference Among Tea Leaf Ages and Analysis Based on Microscopic Surface Features

    Qingmin Pan1, Yongzong Lu1, Liang Xue2, Yongguang Hu1,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.92, No.2, pp. 411-421, 2023, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.023437
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Plant–Environment Interactions)
    Abstract The wettability of leaf surface, commonly represented by contact angle (CA), affects various physiological and physical processes. The present study aims to better understand the wettability of tea leaves and elucidate its influence on the energy barrier of the droplet condensation process. The CA values of different leaf ages (young, mature and old) of five famous tea cultivars (Maolu, longjing 43, Huangjinya, Zhongcha 108 and Anji Baicha) were measured via the sessile drop method, and the micro-morphology of two cultivars leaves (Maolu, Zhongcha 108) was investigated by a 3D super depth-of-field digital microscope. Specifically, two radically distinctive types of CA… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    A Rapid Determination of 30 Prohibited Pesticide Residues in Lycii Fructus by UPLC-MS/MS

    Kesheng Lin1,3,#, Zhengqi Wang2,#, Li Wang1,3, Jiawen Zhou1,3, Lijuan Han1,3, Jingjing Wen2, Tingxia Dong2, Ran Duan2,*, Ning Li1,3,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.92, No.2, pp. 423-437, 2023, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.023763
    Abstract Prohibited pesticide residues have become one of the main factors affecting the quality and safety of Lycii Fructus, However, rarely studies focus on the rapid determination of these residues. Here, a total of 30 kinds of prohibited pesticide residues were determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) in five different process ways. Pretreatment methods, chromatographic separation and detection conditions in mass spectrometry were all optimized accordingly. Among the five different pretreatment methods, the first and third solid phase extraction failed to provide high recoveries of sulfosulfuron compounds (both lower than 60%). Recovery of chlorphenamidine by the… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Full-Length Transcriptome Analysis of Cultivated and Wild Tetraploid Peanut

    Danlei Song#, Xiaona Yu#, Yaoyao Li, Xianheng Wang, Xinyuan Cui, Tong Si, Xiaoxia Zou, Yuefu Wang, Minglun Wang, Xiaojun Zhang*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.92, No.2, pp. 439-453, 2023, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.023165
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Gene Function and Evolution in Arachis)
    Abstract The high-quality genomes and large-scale full-length cDNA sequences of allotetraploid peanuts have been sequenced and released, which has accelerated the functional genomics and molecular breeding research of peanut. In order to understand the difference in the transcriptional levels of wild and cultivated peanuts. In this study, we integrated of second- and third-generation sequencing technologies to sequence full-length transcriptomes in peanut cv. Pingdu9616 and its putative ancestor Arachis monticola. The RNA extracted from six different tissues (i.e., roots, stems, leaves, flowers, needles and pods) were sampled at 20 days after flowering. A total of 31,764 and 33,981 high-quality transcripts were obtained… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Do Geographically Isolated Grasslands Follow the Principle of Island Biogeography in a Landscape Scale? Taking Poyang Lake Grassland as an Example

    Shiqi Luo1,3, Wenbo Chen2,3,*, Lei He4, Qiongbing Xiong1,3
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.92, No.2, pp. 455-470, 2023, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.022466
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Plant–Environment Interactions)
    Abstract As one of the basic theories of biodiversity conservation, island biogeography has been widely accepted in the past decades. Originally, island biogeography was put forward and applied in oceanic environments. But later on, it was found out that the application was not only limited to oceanic islands, but also in terrestrial environments with relatively isolated conditions. In terms of biodiversity level, island biogeography generally focuses on a small scale, such as species diversity and genetic diversity. The studies of biodiversity on a large-scale based on island biogeography, such as ecosystem and landscape scales, were seldomly conducted. Taking Poyang Lake, the… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    The Application of Fertilizer and AMF Promotes Growth and Reduces the Cadmium and Lead Contents of Ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.) in a Copper Mining Area

    Jiaxin Chen1,#, Jiawei Guo1,#, Zhixin Yang1, Jiqing Yang2,*, Hengwen Dong3, Huiyun Wang3, Yalei Wang3, Fangdong Zhan1,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.92, No.2, pp. 471-485, 2023, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.023660
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Symbiotic Associations for Nutrients Management and Complexes Formation for Better Agricultural Crops Productivity under Biotic and Abiotic Stresses)
    Abstract Heavy metal-polluted soil was collected from the Pulang copper mine in Shangri-La City, Yunnan Province, Southwest China. The effects of fertilizer (organic and inorganic) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.) growth, root morphology, mineral nutrition and cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) contents were investigated by pot experiments. The results showed that both fertilizer and AMF significantly ameliorated the root morphology and mineral nutrition, reduced the Cd and Pb contents, and promoted the growth of ryegrass. Among all treatments, the combined application of organic–inorganic compound fertilizer with AMF had the highest effect, resulting in increases in root… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Types of Irrigation Water and Soil Amendment Affect the Growth and Flowering of Petunia x alkinsiana ‘Bravo Pinc’

    Abdullah M. Algahtani1, Fahed A. Al-Mana1, Khalid M. Elhindi1,2,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.92, No.2, pp. 487-499, 2023, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.022850
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Symbiotic Associations for Nutrients Management and Complexes Formation for Better Agricultural Crops Productivity under Biotic and Abiotic Stresses)
    Abstract Water insufficiency is the hampering feature of crop sustainability, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. So, the effectual usage of all water resources especially underground brackish water represents the core priority in Saudi Arabia. The present study aimed to recognize the influence of different types of water irrigation (tap water as a control, salinized well water, and magnetized salinized well water) with or without soil amendments (soil without any amendment as a control, peat-moss, ferrous sulfate, and peat-moss plus ferrous sulfate) on petunia plant growth and flowering as well as ion content. Irrigating Petunia plants with saline well water adversely… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Bioinformatics and Functional Analysis of High Oleic Acid-Related Gene GmSAM22 in Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]

    Shuo Qu1, Qi Cai2, Huimin Cui1, Lamboro Abraham1, Yaolei Jiao1, Guilong Ma2, Piwu Wang1,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.92, No.2, pp. 501-519, 2023, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.023479
    Abstract High yield, high quality, stable yield, adaptability to growth period, and modern mechanization are the basic requirements for crops in the 21st century. Soybean oleic acid is a natural unsaturated fatty acid with strong antioxidant properties and stability. Known as a safe fatty acid, it has the ability to successfully prevent cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disorders. Improving the fatty acid composition of soybean seeds, can not only speed up the breeding process of high-quality high-oil and high-oleic soybeans, but also have important significance in human health, and provide the possibility for the development of soybean oil as a new energy source.… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Functional Analysis of the Genotypic Differences in Response of Pea (Pisum sativum L.) to Calcareous-Induced Iron Deficiency

    Sameh Barhoumi1, Hasna Ellouzi2, Abdelmajid Krouma1,3,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.92, No.2, pp. 521-536, 2023, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.023555
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Plant Ecophysiology: Recent Trends and Advancements)
    Abstract Lime-induced iron chlorosis is a major nutritional disorder causing severe plant growth and yield reduction in the calcareous soils of Tunisia. The understanding the behavior of key metabolic functions of peas on calcareous soils, the identification of useful traits of tolerance, and the exploration of the genotypic differences in response to this constraint remain the most efficient approaches due to their coast, environmental benefits, and sustainability. For this purpose, a greenhouse experiment was conducted on three pea genotypes (Alexandra: Alex, Douce de provence: DP, and Merveille de Kelvedon: MK) cultivated on calcareous soil (Fe-deficient) and fertile soil (control). Plant growth,… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Construction of EMS-Induced Peanut Mutant Libraries and Identification of Pod-Related Traits Mutant Lines

    Hao Chen1, Faqian Xiong2,*, Rilong Xu1, Xiangyu Chen1, Haifeng Zhong1, Yumei Zhang1, Xinlong Lan1, Hong Zhang1, Yuhua Chen1, Runfang Hu1, Guoqiang Lin1,*, Zhaoxiu Tang1
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.92, No.2, pp. 537-557, 2023, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.023912
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Gene Function and Evolution in Arachis)
    Abstract Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an oil and economic crop of vital importance, and peanut pod is the key organ influencing the yield and processing quality. Hence, the Pod-related traits (PRTs) are considered as important agronomic traits in peanut breeding. To broaden the variability of PRTs in current peanut germplasms, three elite peanut cultivars were used to construct Ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS)-induced mutant libraries in this study. The optimal EMS treatment conditions for the three peanut varieties were determined. It was found that the median lethal dose (LD50) of EMS treatment varied greatly among different genotypes. Finally, the EMS-induced peanut… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    De Novo Transcriptome Analysis in Hevea brasiliensis to Unveil Genes Involved in Low Temperature Stress Response

    Bingsong Yang1,2,#, Xiaomeng Shi2,#, Tingting Guo1,2, Meixia Liang1,2,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.92, No.2, pp. 559-575, 2023, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.024266
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Identification of Genetic/Epigenetic Components Responding to Biotic and Abiotic Stresses in Crops)
    Abstract Low temperature is one of the adversities threatening the growth and development and reduces the yield of rubber trees. However, molecular mechanisms toward rubber trees in response to low temperature are largely unclear. In this study, 7,159 and 7,600 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in ‘Reyan 73397’ rubber trees. Through GO analysis, the catalytic activity was the representative of the GO term in the only DEGs at the two studied temperatures (room temperature and 4°C, respectively), while KEGG analysis showed that carbon metabolism was the most important grouping under the comparison of these two temperatures. In addition, expression of… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Chickpea C2H2-Type Zinc Finger Protein ZF2 is a Positive Regulator in Drought Response in Arabidopsis

    Sushuang Liu1,2,#, Yanmin Liu1,2,#, Chundong Liu1, Xingwang Yu2,3, Hao Ma2,4,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.92, No.2, pp. 577-590, 2023, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.023738
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Identification of Genetic/Epigenetic Components Responding to Biotic and Abiotic Stresses in Crops)
    Abstract Drought is a major abiotic stress limiting agricultural crops production worldwide. In our study, we isolated a novel C2H2-type zinc finger protein gene ZF2 from chickpea. ZF2 consisted of 232 amino acids with two QALGGH motifs in Cys2/His2 zinc finger domain. Transient expression analysis of ZF2:GFP fusion protein showed that ZF2 was a nuclear localized protein. In the yeast assay system, the full-length of ZF2 did not show transcriptional activation. Expression of ZF2 gene was enhanced by treatments of several abiotic stresses and phytohormones. The promoter region of ZF2 contained multiple stress- and hormone-related cis-elements. Overexpression of ZF2 in Arabidopsis… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Transcriptome Analysis of a Wild Eggplant Germplasm M239 in Response to Verticillium dahliae Infection

    Liyan Wu1, Jie Cheng1,2, Yaju Gong1, Rui Bao1, Zhibin Li1, Min Gui1,*, Guanghui Du2,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.92, No.2, pp. 591-609, 2023, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.023481
    Abstract In this study, wild eggplant germplasm No. M239, which is highly susceptible to Verticillium wilt, was used as the experimental material. The physiological and biochemical indices (SOD, PAL, MDA and soluble protein) of M239 roots were measured at different times (0, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60 and 72 h) post inoculation with Verticillium dahliae, and the key time points for the M239 response to Verticillium wilt infection were screened. Then, RNA-Seq technology was used to screen the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in M239 roots at 0, 12 and 48 h post-inoculation (hpi). The transcriptional results of M239 were also compared… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Differentiation of Wheat Diseases and Pests Based on Hyperspectral Imaging Technology with a Few Specific Bands

    Lin Yuan1, Jingcheng Zhang2,*, Quan Deng2, Yingying Dong3, Haolin Wang2, Xiankun Du2
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.92, No.2, pp. 611-628, 2023, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.023662
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Symbiotic Associations for Nutrients Management and Complexes Formation for Better Agricultural Crops Productivity under Biotic and Abiotic Stresses)
    Abstract Hyperspectral imaging technique is known as a promising non-destructive way for detecting plants diseases and pests. In most previous studies, the utilization of the whole spectrum or a large number of bands as well as the complexity of model structure severely hampers the application of the technique in practice. If a detection system can be established with a few bands and a relatively simple logic, it would be of great significance for application. This study established a method for identifying and discriminating three commonly occurring diseases and pests of wheat, i.e., powdery mildew, yellow rust and aphid with a few… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Effect of Water Stress Induced by Polyethylene Glycol on Growth, Proline Accumulation in Agave americana L.

    Alfaro-Corres Arnoldo Enrique1,#, Lecona-Guzman Carlos Alberto1,#, Gutiérrez-Miceli Federico Antonio1, Martínez-Esteves Manuel2, Silverio-Gómez María del Carmen3, Medina-Lara María de Fátima2, Ruiz-Lau Nancy4,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.92, No.2, pp. 629-643, 2023, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.023970
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Plant–Environment Interactions)
    Abstract The effect of water deficit was determined on both in vitro and soil seedling as well as in cells in suspension of Agave americana L. In order to do the establishment of cells, the formation of callus was induced; for it two auxins were evaluated: 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 4-mino-3,5,6-trichloropicolinic acid (picloram) at three concentrations (0.25, 0.5 and 0.75 mg L−1) in three explants (leaf, root and meristems) cultured in MS semisolid medium. The callogenesis response was related to the type and section of the explant, as well as the regulator used, and a cell suspension was established using 0.5… More >

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