Home / Journals / PHYTON / Vol.91, No.9, 2022

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Hassawi rice is a highly nutritional brown rice landrace native to the Eastern region of Saudi Arabia that has been cultivated for hundreds of years. The stem borer resistance was correlated with panicle weight and grain weight, which also showed a significant correlation with grain yield/plant. These traits can be effectively employed in a breeding program to confer resistance against stem borer infestation in rice. The results revealed that the non-additive dominance genetic variance was higher than the additive variance for all evaluated traits, indicating that non-additive genetic variances have a role in their inheritance. The broad-sense heritability estimates were high for all the studied traits. This work will contribute to achieving future rice breeding objectives by providing a rich background selection of potential parental materials. It will also provide important information for evaluation of genetic diversity in the local rice germplasm and its utilization in future rice genetic improvement programs.
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  • Open Access

    REVIEW

    The Primacy of Moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.) in Boosting Nutrition Status and Immunity Defence Amidst the COVID-19 Catastrophe: A Perspective

    Hirdayesh Anuragi1, Rajesh Kumar Singhal2, Yashfa Tanveer3, Humaira Yasmin3, Ambati Srijan4, Alka Bharati1, Lal Chand5, Sukumar Taria1, Kunasekaran Rajarajan1, Asha Ram1, Arun Kumar Handa1, Ayyanadar Arunachalam1, Khalid Rehman Hakeem6,7,8,*, Deniz Özbilici9, Ayman EL Sabagh10,11,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.9, pp. 1831-1858, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.020540
    Abstract A severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) led novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak spread through China has become the biggest global public health challenge today. The virus upon several mutations has led to the resurgence of more infectious and lethal variants infecting over 298 million people with more than 5.46 million deaths worldwide by the end of December, 2021. Though vaccines are available, various preventive measures particularly a high body immunity is still extremely important which determines the likelihood of disease severity and subsequent recovery in the current and future pandemics. This review acknowledges the potentiality of miraculous Moringa oleiferaMore >

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    REVIEW

    Antagonistic Potential of Bacterial Species against Fungal Plant Pathogens (FPP) and Their Role in Plant Growth Promotion (PGP): A Review

    Amjad Ali1, Yasir Iftikhar2,*, Mustansar Mubeen2, Haider Ali3, Muhammad Ahmad Zeshan2, Zohaib Asad4, Muhammad Zafar-ul-Hye5, Malik Abdul Rehman6, Mazhar Abbas7, Muhammad Rafique8, Muhammad Usman Ghani9
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.9, pp. 1859-1877, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.021734
    Abstract

    Since the 19th century to date, the fungal pathogens have been involved in causing devastating diseases in plants. All types of fungal pathogens have been observed in important agricultural crops that lead to significant pre and postharvest losses. The application of synthetic fungicide against the fungal plant pathogens (FPP) is a traditional management practice but at the same time these fungicides kill other beneficial microbes, insects, animal, and humans and are harmful to environment. The antagonistic microorganism such as bacteria are being used as an alternate strategy to control the FPP. These antagonistic species are cost-effective and eco-friendly in nature.… More >

    Graphic Abstract

    Antagonistic Potential of Bacterial Species against Fungal Plant Pathogens (FPP) and Their Role in Plant Growth Promotion (PGP): A Review

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Putrescine Enhances Seed Germination Tolerance to Heat Stress in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Shiyan Lu, Yulan Hu, Yilin Chen, Yaru Yang, Yue Jin, Ping Li*, Xiangyang Hu*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.9, pp. 1879-1891, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.022605
    Abstract Putrescine (Put) as the compound of plant polyamines is catalyzed by arginine decarboxylase (ADC), which is encoded by two members, ADC1 and ADC2 in Arabidopsis, and ADC2 is mainly responsible for Put biosynthesis. Accumulated evidence demonstrates the important function of Put in plant growth and development, but its role in regulating seed germination under high temperature (HT) has not been reported yet. SOMNUS (SOM) is the negative regulator for seed germination thermoinhibition by altering downstream gibberellin (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA) metabolism. In this study, we found exogenous application of Put obviously alleviated the inhibition effect of HT on seed… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Allantoin Alleviates Seed Germination Thermoinhibition in Arabidopsis

    Songbei Ying, Sasa Jing, Leheng Cheng, Haiqing Sun, Yuan Tian, Lulu Zhi, Ping Li*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.9, pp. 1893-1904, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.022679
    Abstract Allantoin as the metabolite of purine catabolism can store and remobilize nitrogen for plant growth and development. However, emerging evidence suggests it also contributes to plant tolerance to stress response through altering abscisic acid (ABA) and reducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) level. 1-CYS PEROXIREDOXIN (PER1) is a seed-specific antioxidant that enhances seed longevity through scavenging ROS over-accumulation. High temperature (HT) suppresses seed germination and induces seed secondary dormancy, called as seed germination thermoinhibition. However, the mechanism that allantoin and PER1 regulate seed germination thermoinhibition remains unknown. In this study, we reported that allantoin treatment enhances seed germination under HT stress.… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Breeding among Hassawi Landrace and Egyptian Genotypes for Stem Borer (Chilo agamemnon Bles.) Resistance and Related Quantitative Traits

    Mohammed I. Al-Daej1, Mohamed M. El-Malky2, Muhammad N. Sattar3, Adel A. Rezk1,4, Muhammad N. Naqqash5, Jameel M. Al-Khayri1,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.9, pp. 1905-1922, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.020629
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: High-Yield Rice Physiology & Genetics)
    Abstract Rice stem borer (Chilo agamemnon Bles.) is a primary insect pest of rice and is a major limiting factor to rice production. Breeding for insect-resistant crop varieties has been an economic way of integrated pest management (IPM) as it offers a viable and ecologically acceptable approach. This study was aimed to evaluate rice genotypes for their resistance against rice stem borer. Seven parental genotypes with twenty one F1 crosses were evaluated for genotypic variation in field experiments. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences for the studied traits in almost all crosses and parents. In addition, the mean squares of parents… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Molecular Interaction Study to Explore the Nigella sativa Bioactive Components as an Inhibitor of Peptide Deformylase to Inhibit the Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae via Applying Computational Approach

    Pravej Alam*, Thamer H. Al balawi
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.9, pp. 1923-1931, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.021334
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: High-Yield Rice Physiology & Genetics)
    Abstract Bacterial leaf blight (BLB) caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is one of the most damaging diseases to rice across the world. Various chemicals have been employed so far for the management of bacterial leaf blight. On the other hand, these compounds are damaging to the ecosystem and have an impact on non-target species such as humans and animals. As a result, there is a need to create a new natural inhibitor for BLB management. Deformylase (PDF) enzyme is present in all eubacteria and its necessity in bacterial protein synthesis reveals it as an attractive target for drug development.… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Effects of Auxin at Different Concentrations on the Growth, Root Morphology and Cadmium Uptake of Maize (Zea mays L.)

    Lingyan Hu, Haiyan Chen, Guangqun Zhang, Zihao Yu, Kai Yan, Fangdong Zhan, Yongmei He*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.9, pp. 1933-1944, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.020041
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Integrating Agronomy and Plant Physiology for Improving Crop Production)
    Abstract Indoleacetic acid (IAA) is an important regulator that plays a crucial role in plant growth and responses to abiotic stresses. In the present study, a sand cultivation experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of IAA at different concentrations (0, 0.01, 0.1, 0.5, 1, and 2.5 mmol/L) on maize growth, root morphology, mineral elements (Ca, Mg) and Cd uptake under 20 mg/kg Cd stress. The results showed that 0.01 mmol/L is the optimal IAA concentration for enhancing the Cd tolerance of maize. Compared with the control treatment, 0.01 mmol/L IAA promoted maize growth, with significant increases in the height,… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Optimization of Callus Induction Conditions from Immature Embryos of Maize under Stress

    Xiaotong Wei1,#, Xuhong Fan2,#, Xuan Lu1, Liyuan Han1, Honglin Zhang3, Siyan Liu3, Jing Qu3, Shuyan Guan3,*, Yiyong Ma3,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.9, pp. 1945-1957, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.020062
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Integrating Agronomy and Plant Physiology for Improving Crop Production)
    Abstract

    The embryos of maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines GS02, GS07, GS08, GS11 and GS15 were used as receptor materials to optimize the receptor system from the aspects of genotype, medium components and stress (PEG6000, mannitol, salt and low phosphorus). The results showed that GS07 had the highest induction rate (95.2%). Orthogonal test analysis showed that the best combination of medium components in induction was A2B3C1D3(2), namely, the concentration of 2, 4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) was 4 mg·mL-1, the concentration of L-Proline (L-Pro) was 0.8 mg·mL-1, and the concentration of silver nitrate (AgNO3) was 10 mg·mL-1 (or 5 mg·mL). Interestingly,… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Organic Amendments Improve Plant Morpho-Physiology and Antioxidant Metabolism in Mitigating Drought Stress in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Taufika Islam Anee1,#, Md. Nur Nabi Islam1,#, Mohamed M. Hassan2, Abdul Awal Chowdhury Masud1, Md. Mahabub Alam1, Mirza Hasanuzzaman1,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.9, pp. 1959-1972, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.021137
    Abstract Due to the unpredictable climate change, drought stress is being considered as one of the major threats to crop production. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. BARI Gom-26) being a dry season crop frequently faces scarcity of water and results in a lower yield. Therefore, this experiment aims to explore the role of different organic amendments (OAs) in mitigating drought stress-induced damage. The pot experiment consisted of different organic amendments viz. compost, vermicompost and poultry manure @0.09 kg m−2 soil, biochar @2.5% w/w soil and chitosan @1% w/w soil which was imposed on the plants grown under both well-watered and drought… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Analysis of Seed Phenotypic and Metabolic Characteristics of Diploid and Tetraploid Tartary Buckwheat

    Xiaodong Shi1,*, Cong Wang1, Wenjian Li1, Hanlei Xiao1, Yanjie Li1, Bei Niu2,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.9, pp. 1973-1986, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.020065
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Plant Omics in Challenging Environment)
    Abstract Polyploid plants grow well, are stress tolerant, and are rich in nutrients and bioactive compounds. Thus, they are useful for improving crop quality and yield. In this study, we compared the seed characteristics and metabolite profiles of diploid and tetraploid tartary buckwheat, which was developed via an artificially induced chromosome doubling event. The length, width, area, and thousand-grain weight were greater for the tetraploid seeds than for the diploid seeds. However, the germination rate decreased for the tetraploid seeds. Additionally, there was a gap between the shell and kernel of the tetraploid seeds. Moreover, the water absorption rate was higher… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Effect of Cadmium Stress on the Growth, Physiology, Stress Markers, Antioxidants and Stomatal Behaviour of Two Genotypes of Chickpea ( Cicer arietinum L.)

    Sayyada Bushra1, Shahla Faizan1, Zeenat Mushtaq1, Alisha Hussain1, Khalid Rehman Hakeem2,3,4,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.9, pp. 1987-2004, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.019957
    Abstract

    The current work was performed to know the impact of cadmium (Cd) toxicity on two different genotypes of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) namely Pusa-BG1053 and Pusa-BG372. Cadmium was applied in the form of cadmium chloride (CdCl2), in varying levels, 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100 mg Cd kg-1 soil. Plant growth as well as physiological attributes were decreased with increasing concentration of Cd. Both genotypes showed the maximum and significant reduction at the maximum dose of Cd (100 mg Cd kg-1 soil). Results of this study proved that the genotype Pusa-BG1053 was more tolerant and showed a lower decline in… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Age-Related Alterations in DNA Methylation and APETALA2 (AP2) Levels in Herbaceous Peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall.)

    Yanqing Wu1,2, Jiao Liu1, Yuhan Tang2, Daqiu Zhao2, Jun Tao1,2,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.9, pp. 2005-2016, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.021062
    Abstract The ornamental and commercial values of herbaceous peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall.) are directly related to its flower pattern. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the type formation of P. lactiflora flowers have not been studied in great detail. Previous studies identified, using integrated multipleomics analysis, revealed that APETALA2 (AP2) is an important candidate gene that modulates type formation of P. lactiflora flowers. To further reveal the expression mechanism of AP2 in P. lactiflora petals, we examined the profile of AP2 expression in the inner and outer petals of ‘ZiFengyu’ at various developmental stages using qRT-PCR and BSP+Miseq methylation analysis. Based on… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Effect of Paclobutrazol Application on Plant Growth and Flower Quality in Herbaceous Peony

    Yanqing Wu1,2, Jiao Liu1, Daqiu Zhao2, Jun Tao1,2,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.9, pp. 2017-2032, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.020643
    Abstract Herbaceous peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall.) is an important ornamental plant worldwide. In its natural state, P. lactiflora often manifests traits like rapidly elongating internodal growth, loose plant types, and soft inflorescence stems. However, very little has been known about the measures for controlling these traits. This study investigated the effect of applying paclobutrazol (PBZ) on the plant growth and flower quality in P. lactiflora. The results indicated that PBZ application reduced the plant height (8.05%), plant crown width (14.72%), and leaf area (10.90%), but increased the leaf thickness (18.18%) and stem diameter (over 11%) in P. lactiflora. Meanwhile, PBZ application… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Response of Tomato Sugar and Acid Metabolism and Fruit Quality under Different High Temperature and Relative Humidity Conditions

    Yanjiao Zheng1, Zaiqiang Yang1,2,*, Tingting Wei1, Heli Zhao1
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.9, pp. 2033-2054, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.019468
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Effect of Abiotic Stress Treatments on the Antioxidants Activities, Secondary Metabolites and Postharvest Physico-Chemical Properties of Fruits and Vegetables)
    Abstract The combined stress of high temperature and high relative air humidity is one of the most serious agrometeorological disasters that restricts the production capacity of protected agriculture. However, there is little information about the precise interaction between them on tomato fruit quality. The objectives of this study were to explore the effects of the combined stress of high temperature and relative humidity on the sugar and acid metabolism and fruit quality of tomato fruits, and to determine the best relative air humidity for fruit quality under high temperature environments. Four temperature treatments (32°C, 35°C, 38°C, 41°C), three relative air humidity… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    G × E Analysis of Growth Traits of Betula platyphylla Clones at Three Separated Sites in Northeastern China

    Yuxi Li1,2, Xinxin Zhang1,2, Qinhui Zhang1,2, Luping Jiang1,2, Rui Han1, Siqi Sun1, Xiaoqing Hu1, Xiaona Pei1, Chunli Zhao1,*, Xiyang Zhao1,2,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.9, pp. 2055-2068, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.020518
    Abstract To select elite materials, the growth traits of 32 Betula platyphylla clones at three separated northern sites in Northeast China were investigated and analyzed. The results showed that there were significant differences among all variation sources in the different investigated traits (P <0.01). Except for the carbon contents, all the coefficients of phenotypic variation of the other investigated traits were higher than 10%. The repeatability of different traits ranged from 0.760 to 0.998. Correlation analysis showed that tree height were significantly correlated with diameter at breast height, but neither was significantly correlated with leaf traits nor element contents. Additive main effects… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Environmental Drivers and Spatial Prediction of the Critically Endangered Species Thuja sutchuenensis in Sichuan-Chongqing, China

    Liang Xie1,2,5, Peihao Peng1,*, Haijun Wang1,3, Shengbin Chen4
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.9, pp. 2069-2086, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.018807
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Plant Ecophysiology: Recent Trends and Advancements)
    Abstract Identifying the ecological environment suitable for the growth of Thuja sutchuenensis and predicting other potential distribution areas are essential to protect this endangered species. After selecting 24 environmental factors that could affect the distribution of T. sutchuenensis, including climate, topography, soil and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), we adopted the Random Forest-MaxEnt integrated model to analyze our data. Based on the Random Forest study, the contribution of the mean temperature of the warmest quarter, mean temperature of the coldest quarter, annual mean temperature and mean temperature of the driest quarter was large. Based on MaxEnt model prediction outputs, the potential… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    How Physical Disturbance and Nitrogen Addition Affect the Soil Carbon Decomposition?

    Muhammad Junaid Nazir1,2, Xiuwei Zhang1,*, Daolin Du2, Feihai Yu1
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.9, pp. 2087-2097, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.021412
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: The Effect of Soil Quality Degradation on the Plant Growth, Quality and Food Safety in Subtropical Agroforestry Ecosystems)
    Abstract The decomposition of soil organic carbon (SOC) plays a critical role in regulating atmospheric CO2 concentrations and climate dynamics. However, the mechanisms and factors controlling SOC decomposition are still not fully understood. Here, we conducted a 60 days incubation experiment to test the effects of physical disturbance and nitrogen (N) addition on SOC decomposition. N addition increased the concentration of NO3- by 51% in the soil, but had little effect on the concentration of NH4+. N addition inhibited SOC decomposition, but such an effect differed between disturbed and undisturbed soils. In disturbed and undisturbed soils, application of N decreased SOC… More >

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