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Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are molecules generated by the metabolism of mitochondria, peroxisomes, chloroplasts, endoplasmic reticulum, glyoxysomes, and apoplast. The plant cell takes advantage of ROS to send signals and to induce changes in the nucleus (i.e., retrograde). The signal can be carried out directly by ROS or indirectly as a consequence of membrane lipids oxidation. The physiological role of retrograde signal is to alert the nucleus about the development and physiological status of the different organelles.
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  • Open Access

    REVIEW

    Role of Reactive Oxygen Species in the Initiation of Plant Retrograde Signaling

    Eduardo-Antonio Trillo-Hernández1, Arturo Duarte Sierra2, Martín Ernesto Tiznado-Hernández1,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.5, pp. 905-913, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.018118
    Abstract

    The interaction between the nucleus and the different organelles is important in the physiology of the plant. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are a by-product of the oxidation of organic molecules to obtain energy by the need to carry out the electron transfer between the different enzymatic complexes. However, they also have a role in the generation of what is known as retrograde signaling. This signal comes from the different organelles in which the oxidation of molecules or the electron transference is taking place such as mitochondria and chloroplasts. Furthermore, ROS can also induce the release of signals from the apoplast.… More >

  • Open Access

    REVIEW

    Recent Developments to Mitigate Selenium Deficiency in Agricultural Eco-Systems

    Misbah Naz1, Rubab Shabbir2,17, Krishan K. Verma3, Anshu Rastogi4, Vishnu D. Rajput5, Talha Javed2,6, Muhammad Ammar Raza7, Kainat Asif8, Muhammad Aamir Iqbal9, Muhammad Imran10, Mohammad Sohidul Islam11, Khalid Rehman Hakeem12,13,*, Mehmet Firat Baran14, Ayman EL Sabagh15,16,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.5, pp. 915-927, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.018688
    Abstract

    Under changing climate, trace elements like selenium (Se) have emerged as vital constituent of agro-ecosystems enabling crop plants to off-set the adverse effects of suboptimal growth conditions. The available form of selenium is important for boosting its bioavailability to crop plants having varied agro-botanical traits and root architectural systems. As compared to selenite, the selenate has a weaker soil bonding, higher absorption in the soil solution which results in a comparatively absorption by plant roots. Various factors including dry climate, high pH, optimal ambient air temperature, less accumulation of water, and low concentration of organic matter in the soil tend… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Embryo and Endosperm Phytochemicals from Polyembryonic Maize Kernels and Their Relationship with Seed Germination

    J. David García-Ortíz1, Rebeca González-Centeno1, María Alejandra Torres-Tapia2, J. A. Ascacio-Valdés1, José Espinoza-Velázquez2, Raúl Rodríguez-Herrera1,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.5, pp. 929-941, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.018368
    Abstract Because of the growing worldwide demand for maize grain, new alternatives have been sought for breeding of this cereal, e.g., development of polyembryonic varieties, which agronomic performance could positively impact the grain yield per unit area, and nutritional quality. The objectives of this study were to (1) determine the phytochemicals present in the embryo and endosperm of grain from maize families with high, low, and null polyembryony frequency, which were planted at different locations, and (2) state the relationship between these compounds and seed germination. The extracted phytochemicals from corn were identified by HPLC-MS. The results showed that the genotype… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Multi-Environmental Genetic Analysis of Grain Size Traits Based on Chromosome Segment Substitution Line in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Yujia Leng1,#, Shuilian Wang1,2,3,#, Ruoan Wang2,#, Tao Tao1, Shuwen Jia1,2, Tao Song2,3, Lina Xu1,2, Xiuling Cai1,2, Sukui Jin1,2,*, Jiping Gao1,2,4,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.5, pp. 943-958, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.018707
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: High-Yield Rice Physiology & Genetics)
    Abstract Grain size traits are critical agronomic traits which directly determine grain yield, but the genetic bases of these traits are still not well understood. In this study, a total of 154 chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs) population derived from a cross between a japonica variety Koshihikari and an indica variety Nona Bokra was used to investigate grain length (GL), grain width (GW), length-width ratio (LWR), grain perimeter (GP), grain area (GA), and thousand grain weight (TGW) under four environments. QTL mapping analysis of six grain size traits was performed by QTL IciMapping 4.2 with an inclusive composite interval mapping (ICIM)… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Nitric Oxide Alleviates Photochemical Damage Induced by Cadmium Stress in Pea Seedlings

    Ekhlaque A. Khan1,2,*, Hamdino M. I. Ahmed3, Meena Misra1, Pallavi Sharma1,4, Amarendra N. Misra1
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.5, pp. 959-973, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.018708
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Integrating Agronomy and Plant Physiology for Improving Crop Production)
    Abstract Cadmium (Cd), a life threatening hazardous heavy metal is abundant in nature. Cd amounts are greater in leaves than other plant parts, and it shows considerable effects on photosynthesis. Nitric oxide (NO), a free radical present in living organisms, is now known as an important signaling molecule playing various physiological processes in plants. In this study, the possible ameliorative effect of NO on photosynthesis was examined on pea seedlings grown under Cd stress. Results showed that chlorophyll, net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, photochemical efficiency of Photosystem II and Photosystem I decreased, and Fo and non-photochemical parameters for PSII… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Effects of Manganese Toxicity on the Growth and Gene Expression at the Seedling Stage of Soybean

    Ying Liu1,3,*, Jingye Chen1,3, Xiaohao Li1,3, Shaoxia Yang1, Hanqiao Hu1,3, Yingbin Xue2,3,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.5, pp. 975-987, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.019057
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Integrating Agronomy and Plant Physiology for Improving Crop Production)
    Abstract In order to investigate the effects of Manganese (Mn) toxicity stress on the growth and gene expression at the seedling stage of soybean, soybean seedlings were treated with normal Mn concentration (5 μmol/L MnSO4) and excess Mn concentration (100 μmol/L MnSO4) by the method of hydroponic culture in this study. When soybean was subjected to Mn toxicity stress, excessive Mn could affect seedling growth, root development, the number of Mn oxide spots in leaves, and the Mn accumulation content in different parts of soybean. With the increase of exogenous Mn concentration and the prolongation of culture time, the shoot and… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Identification of a Unique Germacrene A Oxidase from Xanthium strumarium

    Lifen Zheng1, Fangfang Chen2, Yuanjun Li3, Changfu Li1,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.5, pp. 989-998, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.019219
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Plant Omics in Challenging Environment)
    Abstract 8,12-sesquiterpene lactones (STLs) are an important class of natural products with unique pharmaceutical activities. For years the pathway leading to 8,12-STLs remains an enigma. Xanthium strumarium accumulates abundant 8,12-STLs, and xanthatin is a characteristic 8,12-STL in it. Xanthatin has been previously postulated to be derived from germacrene A, but the steps from germacrene A to xanthatin are unknown. As part of an effort to understand the xanthatin biosynthetic pathway. This study reports the characterization of a unique germacrene A oxidase (XsGAO) from X. strumarium. Unlike a classical GAO enzyme, which is known to catalyze a three-step oxidation of germarene A… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Cloning and Characterization of EuGID1 in Eucommia ulmoides Oliver

    Yulu Chen1, Fen Zhang1, Ju Cai1, Yichen Zhao1,2, Jiaxue Cui1, Yan Li1,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.5, pp. 999-1013, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.018984
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Plant Omics in Challenging Environment)
    Abstract Gibberellic acid controlled the key developmental processes of the life cycle of landing plants, and regulated the growth and development of plants. In this study, a novel gibberellin receptor gene EuGID1 was obtained from Eucommia ulmoides Oliver. The cDNA of EuGID1 was 1556 bp, and the open reading frame was 1029 bp, which encoded 343 amino acids. EuGID1 had the homology sequence with the hormone-sensitive lipase family. Amino acid sequence alignment confirmed EuGID1 protein had the highest homology with the GID1 protein of Manihot esculenta. EuGID1 was located in the nucleus and cell membrane and had expression in four plant organs. Overexpression… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Germination and Photosynthetic Responses to Salinity and Alkalinity in Avicenna marina Propagules

    Abdallah Atia1,2,*, Ahmed Abdallah Hussain3,4, Barhoumi Zouhaier3,5
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.5, pp. 1015-1026, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.017778
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Plant Ecophysiology: Recent Trends and Advancements)
    Abstract Avicenna marina (Forssk.) Vierh is a halophytic mangrove. The reproductive unit is green and has photosynthetic propagules. Mangroves are naturally exposed to fluctuations in some abiotic factors at the soil surface, including salinity and alkalinity. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of two salts including NaCl and NaHCO3 on germination processes and discuss the relationships between cotyledon photosynthesis and embryo axis growth in A. marina propagules. These propagules came from Al Birk, located on the shoreline of the Saudi Red Sea. The results showed that the studied salts did not affect neither the final germination percentage… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Transcriptomic and Physiological Analyses of Pigment Accumulation in Eucommia ulmoides ‘Hongye’

    Mengjiao Chen1,2, Jinhui Zhai3, Jiajia Zhang1,4,5,6, Hui Li1,2, Xinjiang Niu1,2, Yaxin Liu1,2, Yue Ren1,2, Hongyan Du1,4,5,6, Jingle Zhu1,4,5,6,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.5, pp. 1027-1044, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.019106
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Plant Ecophysiology: Recent Trends and Advancements)
    Abstract Eucommia ulmoides ‘Hongye’ is a new ornamental variety of E. ulmoides with excellent red or purple foliage. We found that E. ulmoides ‘Hongye’ exhibited a gradual change from green to red colour under light conditions. However, the colouring mechanism in the leaves of E. ulmoides ‘Hongye’ remains unclear. In this study, we compared the pigment content and leaf colour index of E. ulmoides ‘Hongye’ at five stages with those of E. ulmoides ‘Xiaoye’, which was used as the control variety. The transcriptome sequencing data of the first-period (H1, green) and fifth-period (H5, red) leaves were also analysed and compared. The… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Selection of Stable Reference Genes for Quantitative Real-Time PCR on Paeonia ostii T. Hong et J. X. Zhang Leaves Exposed to Different Drought Stress Conditions

    Yuting Luan1, Cong Xu1, Xiaoxiao Wang1, Daqiu Zhao1, Jun Tao1,2,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.5, pp. 1045-1059, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.018767
    Abstract The definition of relatively stable expressed internal reference genes is essential in both traditional blotting quantification and as a modern data quantitative strategy. Appropriate internal reference genes can accurately standardize the expression abundance of target genes to avoid serious experimental errors. In this study, the expression profiles of ten candidate genes, ACT1, ACT2, GAPDH, eIF1, eIF2, α-TUB, β-TUB, TBP, RNA Pol II and RP II, were calculated for a suitable reference gene selection in Paeonia ostii T. Hong et J. X. Zhang leaves under various drought stress conditions. Data were processed by the four regularly used evaluation software. A comprehensive… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Foliar Application of Brassinolide Induced Regulation of Grain Yield and Quality, Antioxidant Responses and Aroma in Fragrant Rice

    Jinhai Liu1,2,3,#, Rifang Lai1,2,3,#, Longxin He1,2,3, Pipeng Xing1,2,3, Haowen Luo1,2,3, Shuying Yang4, Yingbin Zou4, Xiangru Tang1,2,3,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.5, pp. 1061-1071, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.017634
    Abstract Brassinolide (BR) is a new green plant growth regulator. The present field study was conducted on two fragrant rice cultivars (i.e., Meixiangzhan-2 and Xiangyaxiangzhan) to study the effects of foliar application of BR on fragrant rice performance. At the heading stage, BR solutions at 0.05, 0.15, 0.25 and 0.50 mg L-1 were sprayed on fragrant rice at 600 liters per hectare; these treatments were named as BR1, BR2, BR3 and BR4, respectively. The treatment sprayed with distilled water was taken as a control (CK). Compared with CK, the BR2 treatment significantly enhanced the chlorophyll concentration and net photosynthetic rate for… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Rapid Profiling and Characterization of the Multicomponents from the Root and Rhizome of Salvia miltiorrhiza by Ultra-High Performance Liquid Chromatography/Ion Mobility-Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry in Combination with Computational Peak Annotation Workflows

    Boxue Chen1,#, Hongda Wang1,#, Meiyu Liu1, Wandi Hu1, Yuexin Qian1, Jiali Wang1, Jie Liu1, Xue Li1, Jing Wang2, Wenzhi Yang1,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.5, pp. 1073-1088, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.019399
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Plant Bioactive Compounds-Chemotaxonomic Significance, Antioxidant Properties, Potential Application as Food Ingredients as well as Therapeutics, and the Analytical Technology in Their Efficient Discovery)
    Abstract Herbal components characterization represents a challenging task because of the co-existing of multiple classes of naturally occurring compounds with wide spans of polarity, molecular mass, and the ubiquitous isomerism. The root and rhizome of Salvia miltiorrhiza have been utilized as a reputable traditional Chinese medicine Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma (Dan-Shen) in the treatment of cardiovascular disease. Herein, a dimension-enhanced ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/ion mobility/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry approach in combination with intelligent peak annotation workflows was established aimed to rapidly characterize the multicomponents from S. miltiorrhiza. Due to the sufficient optimization, satisfactory chromatography separation was enabled on an HSS… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Investigation of SARS-CoV-2 Main Protease Potential Inhibitory Activities of Some Natural Antiviral Compounds Via Molecular Docking and Dynamics Approaches

    Nada M. Mostafa1,5,#, Muhammad I. Ismail2,#, Amr M. El-Araby3, Dina M. Bahgat1, Ahmed M. Elissawy1,5, Ahmed M. Mostafa4, Omayma A. Eldahshan1,5,*, Abdel Nasser B. Singab1,5,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.5, pp. 1089-1104, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.018239
    Abstract Coronaviruses caused an outbreak pandemic disease characterized by a severe acute respiratory distress syndrome leading to the infection of more than 200 million patients and the death of more than 4 million individuals. The primary treatment is either supportive or symptomatic. Natural products have an important role in the development of various drugs. Thus, screening of natural compounds with reported antiviral activities can lead to the discovery of potential inhibitory entities against coronaviruses. In the current study, an in-silico molecular docking experiment was conducted on the effects of some of these natural antiviral phytoconstituents, (e.g., procyanidin B2, theaflavin, quercetin, ellagic… More >

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