Vol.91, No.2, 2022-Table of Contents

On the Cover

Abiotic stresses trigger the generation of plant reactive oxygen species (ROS) which can lead to cell death. As an adaptive response, plants biosynthesize chlorogenic acid (CGA) which has powerful antioxidant properties and can improve the ability to scavenge ROS. In this review, the roles of CGA in plants exposed to abiotic factors and the evolutionary analysis of CGA pathway-related genes are summarized. Bioinformatics analyzes were carried out on CGA-related genes across 37 plant species and revealed that the metabolic pathway starts in algae and gradually increases until it becomes complete in angiosperms. The key genes exhibited different expression patterns in various plant tissues and when plants were exposed to several stresses. Interestingly, some genes accumulated rapidly during evolution and were more sensitive to environmental stresses, while others appeared only later in angiosperms.
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  • Chlorogenic Acid Metabolism: The Evolution and Roles in Plant Response to Abiotic Stress
  • Abstract During the evolution, plants acquired the ability to synthesize different phenylpropanoid compounds like chlorogenic acid (CGA), which plays vital roles in resistance mechanisms to abiotic stresses. These environmental factors, including heavy metal, cold, heat, ultraviolet (UV) light, drought, and salinity affect the plant physiological processes, resulting in massive losses of agriculture production. As plants evolve from green algae to bryophytes, ferns, gymnosperms and angiosperms, phenylpropanoids are produced and accumulated in different tissues, giving the plant the capacity to counteract the harmful effects of the adverse environments. Studies have been performed on the metabolic evolution of rosmarinic acid, flavonoids and lignin,… More
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  • Mycorrhiza and Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria: Potential Bioagents for Sustainable Phosphorus Management in Agriculture
  • Abstract Phosphorus (P) is a critical nutrient that plays an essential role in improving soil fertility for optimum plant growth and productivity. It is one of the most deficient macro-nutrients in agricultural soils after nitrogen and is considered inadequate for plant growth and production. To P availability in soils, the farmers are applying huge amounts of synthetic P fertilizers that adversely affect the wider environment, groundwater, soil fertility and microbial population. Many beneficial microbes are known to release and supply soluble P for improving growth and yield of a variety of plants in a sustainable manner in P deficient soils. Thus,… More
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  • Identification of Genes Involved in Celastrol Biosynthesis by Comparative Transcriptome Analysis in Tripterygium wilfordii
  • Abstract Tripterygium wilfordii has been renowned mostly because of the anticancer effects of its root extracts, which is partly ascribed to the presence of celastrol, a pentacyclic triterpenoid, as one of the main active components. Celastrol also has recently been reported as an effective prodrug in the treatment of obesity. Despite the promising activities, the pathway leading to celastrol biosynthesis, especially cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme(s) that occur in its downstream steps, are largely unknown. This study conducted a comparative analysis of the T. wilfordii transcriptome derived from its root and leaf tissues. Differential gene expression analysis identified a number of root-specific… More
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  • Effect of UV Radiation and Other Abiotic Stress Factors on DNA of Different Wild Plant Species Grown in Three Successive Seasons in Alpine and Subalpine Regions
  • Abstract Plants in natural ecosystems are exposed to a combination of UV radiation, ionizing radiation (IR) and other abiotic factors. These factors change with the altitude. We investigated DNA alterations of some wild plants of different plant families in natural ecosystems at three altitudes in Rila Mountain, Bulgaria (1500, 1782, and 2925 m above sea level (a.s.l.) exposed to UV radiation, IR and other abiotic stresses, to assess the tolerance of plant species to the changing environmental conditions in three successive growth seasons. For this purpose, physicochemical, cytogenetic, and molecular methods were applied. DNA damage was assessed by micronucleus test and molecular… More
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  • Light Intensity Affects the Coloration and Structure of Chimeric Leaves of Ananas comosus var. bracteatus
  • Abstract Ananas comosus var. bracteatus is an important ornamental plant because of its green/white chimeric leaves. The accumulation of anthocyanin makes the leaf turn to red especially in the marginal part. However, the red fades away in summer and winter. Light intensity is one of the most important factors affecting leaf color along the seasons. In order to understand the effects of light intensity on the growth and coloration of the chimeric leaves, Ananas comosus var. bracteatus was grown under full sunlight, 50% shade and 75% shade for 75 days to evaluate the concentration of pigments, the color parameters (values L*,… More
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  • Construction and Functional Analysis of CRISPR/Cas9 Vector of FAD2 Gene Family in Soybean
  • Abstract Soybean oleic acid content is one of the important indexes to evaluate the quality of soybean oil. In the synthesis pathway of soybean fatty acids, the FAD2 gene family is the key gene that regulates the production of linoleic acid from soybean oleic acid. In this study, CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing technology was used to regulate FAD2 gene expression. Firstly, the CRISPR/Cas9 single knockout vectors GmFAD2-1B and GmFAD2-2C and double knockout vectors GmFAD2-2A-3 were constructed. Then, the three vectors were transferred into the recipient soybean variety Jinong 38 by Agrobacterium-mediated cotyledon node transformation, and the mutant plants were obtained. Functional analysis… More
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  • Optimization of Agrobacterium tumefaciens-Mediated Genetic Transformation of Maize
  • Abstract Immature embryos of inbred maize (Zea mays) lines (H8183, H8184, and H8185) were used for Agrobacterium infection. We used the β-glucuronidase gene (GUS) as the target gene and the glufosinate resistance gene (bar) as the selection marker. We conducted research on several aspects, such as different genotypes, coculture conditions, screening agent concentrations, and concentrations of indole-3-butytric acid (IBA), 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA), and ascorbic acid (Vc) in the differentiation medium. We optimized the genetic transformation system, and the obtained results indicated that among the three lines studied, the induction rate of H8185 was the highest at 93.2%, followed by H8184, with H8183… More
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  • Transcriptomic Analysis of the Tolerance Response to Dehydration and Rehydration in Wheat Seedlings
  • Abstract Drought is the main abiotic stress that restricts wheat production. The rapid development of sequencing technology and its widespread application to various fields have revealed the structural characteristics and regulation of related genes through gene expression analysis. Here, we studied responses of wheat plants under drought and re-watering conditions, using morphological and physiological indicators. Moreover, a transcriptome analysis was conducted on Jingmai 12, a drought-resistant wheat strain, to explore the mechanism underlying the response of drought-resistant wheat seedlings to drought stress at the transcriptome level. Drought stress caused morphological and physiological changes in both drought-resistant and -sensitive varieties, but to… More
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  • Nitric Oxide Regulates Mitochondrial Fatty Acids and Promotes CBF Expression of Peach Fruit during Cold Storage
  • Abstract Low-temperature storage is convenient for postharvest preservation of peach fruit, but peach fruit is sensitive to cold damage, which lowers its quality. Nitric oxide (NO) has the potential to improve the bitter resistance of peach fruit. In this work, peach fruit was treated with 15 μmol L−1 NO and 5 μmol L−1 c-PTIO [2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxo-3-oxide], to study changes in mitochondrial fatty acids and expression of the C-repeat binding factor (CBF). The results showed that 15 μmol L−1 exogenous NO significantly maintained fruit quality, reduced peroxidation of mitochondrial fatty acids, increased the activities of the antioxidants superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase… More
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  • Contrasting Characteristics of Lodging Resistance in Two Super-Rice Hybrids Differing in Harvest Index
  • Abstract The “super rice” breeding program in China has been successful in developing high-yielding hybrids, including few with high harvest index values. However, there is limited information on the relationship between lodging resistance and harvest index, and the mechanisms underlying the relationship in super-rice hybrids. In this study, a two-year field experiment was conducted to compare lodging resistance and its related traits between two super-rice hybrids differing in harvest index, i.e., Guiliangyou 2 (G2) with a high harvest index and Y-liangyou 1 (Y1) with a typical harvest index of modern high-yielding rice varieties. Results showed that compared to Y1, G2 was… More
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  • Integrated Nutrient Management Improves Productivity and Quality of Sugarcane (Saccharum Officinarum L.)
  • Abstract Sugarcane is one of the major important sugar yielding crops in Bangladesh. As an exhaustive crop, sugarcane removes a huge amount of plant nutrients from the soil. However, the combined use of organic and inorganic fertilizers can be a good approach to deal with nutrient depletion and promote sustainable crop production as well as improve soil health. Therefore, an attempt was made to identify the most fruitful and profitable integrated nutrient management on the aspects of growth, yield and quality of sugarcane in two consecutive growing seasons. Seven treatments: T1 =Control, T2 =165:55:120:30:10:2.5:4 kg N:P:K:S:Mg:Zn:B ha−1, T3 =Poultry Litter (PL) at 5 t ha−1 +95:51:87:9:10:2.5:4 kg… More
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