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REVIEW

Changes in Phyto-Chemical Status upon Viral Infections in Plant: A Critical Review

Tehmina Bahar1,*, Adeeba Mahboob Qureshi1, Fasiha Qurashi1,2, Muniba Abid1, Misbah Batool Zahra1, Muhammad Saleem Haider1
1 Institute of Agricultural Sciences, University of the Punjab, Lahore, 54590, Pakistan
2 Department of Forestry, Range and Wildlife Management, University College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur, 63100, Pakistan
* Corresponding Author: Tehmina Bahar. Email:
(This article belongs to this Special Issue: Plant Secondary Metabolites: Recent Advances and Opportunities)

Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany 2021, 90(1), 75-86. https://doi.org/10.32604/phyton.2020.010597

Received 12 March 2020; Accepted 01 July 2020; Issue published 20 November 2020

Abstract

Most damaging plant diseases have been caused by viruses in the entire world. In tropical and subtropical areas, the damage caused by plant virus leads to great economic and agricultural losses. Single stranded DNA viruses (geminiviruses) are the most perilous pathogens which are responsible for major diseases in agronomic and horticultural crops. Significantly begomoviruses and mastreviruses are the biggest genus of plant infecting viruses, transmitted though Bemisia tabaci and members of Cicadellidae respectively. Plants possesses some naturally existing chemicals term as phyto-chemicals which perform important functions in the plant. Some antioxidant enzymes are used by plants for self-defense upon foreign invasion of infection. This review explains the present perceptive of influence of viral infections on phyto-chemicals, oxidative enzymes and biochemical changes occurring in the plant. Viral infection mediated phyto-chemical changes in plants mainly includes: up and down regulation of photosynthetic pigment, increase in the concentration of phenolic compounds, elevation of starch content in the leaf and up & down regulation of anti-oxidative enzymes including (GPX) guaiacol peroxidase, (PPO) polyphenol oxidase, (APX) ascorbate peroxidase, (SOD) superoxide dismutase and (CTA) catalase. These changes lead to initiation of hypersensitive response, by thicken of the leaf lamina, lignification under the leaf surface, blocking to stomatal openings, systematic cell death, generation of reactive oxidative species (ROS), activation of pathogen mediated resistance pathways i.e., production of salicylic acid and jasmonic acid. Collectively all the physiological changes in the plant due to viral infection supports the activation of defense mechanism of the plant to combat against viral infection by limiting virus in specific area, followed with the production of barriers for pathogen, accumulation of starch in the leaf and excess production of (ROS). These strategies used by the plant to prevent the spread of virus in whole plant and to minimize the risk of severe yield loss.

Keywords

Anti-oxidative enzymes; defense mechanism; phyto-chemicals; viral infection

Cite This Article

Bahar, T., Qureshi, A. M., Qurashi, F., Abid, M., Zahra, M. B. et al. (2021). Changes in Phyto-Chemical Status upon Viral Infections in Plant: A Critical Review. Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, 90(1), 75–86.

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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