Vol.88, No.3, 2019-Table of Contents
  • Targeting Glycinebetaine for Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Crop Plants: Physiological Mechanism, Molecular Interaction and Signaling
  • Abstract In the era of climate change, abiotic stresses (e.g., salinity, drought, extreme temperature, flooding, metal/metalloid(s), UV radiation, ozone, etc.) are considered as one of the most complex environmental constraints that restricts crop production worldwide. Introduction of stress-tolerant crop cultivars is the most auspicious way of surviving this constraint, and to produce these types of tolerant crops. Several bioengineering mechanisms involved in stress signaling are being adopted in this regard. One example of this kind of manipulation is the osmotic adjustment. The quarternary ammonium compound glycinebetaine (GB), also originally referred to as betaine is a methylated glycine derivative. Among the betaines,… More
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  • Trace Elements in the Soil-Plant Systems of Copper Mine Areas-A Case Study From Murgul Copper Mine From the Black Sea Region of Turkey
  • Abstract This study presents a case study on the heavy metal analysis of soil and plant samples around the Murgul copper mine, one of the first and most important mining areas in Turkey. An attempt has been made to investigate the status of trace elements like Al3+, Fe2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Pb2+, Ni2+, Co2+ and Cd2+ in soils and plants. The sampling localities were taken from 500 m, 600 m, and 1000 m altitudes around the factory and at 1400 m in the forest zone. The aboveground parts and foliage ash of Silene compacta, Tussilago farfara, Smilax excelsa, Rhododendron ponticum, R. luteum,… More
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  • Photosynthetic Behaviour and Mineral Nutrition of Tamarix gallica Cultivated Under Aluminum and NaCl Combined Stress
  • Abstract The lack of knowledge of plant tolerance and differential response to aluminum (Al) encouraged many researchers, in the last decade, to elucidate Al toxicity and tolerance mechanisms. The current study reported the impact of Al, a toxic element with negative effects on plant growth and development, in halophytic plant Tamarix gallica. Plants were subjected to different Al concentrations (0, 200, 500 and 800 μM) with or without NaCl (200 mM) supplementation. Growth, photosynthesis and mineral content were assessed. Al stress had a significant decrease on shoots’ biomass production between 19 to 41%, and a little variation on chlorophyll content and… More
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  • Physiological, Biochemical and Molecular Responses of Barley Seedlings to Aluminum Stress
  • Abstract Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is one of the most Aluminum (Al) sensitive cereal species. In this study, the physiological, biochemical, and molecular response of barley seedlings to Al treatment was examined to gain insight into Al response and tolerance mechanisms. The results showed that superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) activity were inhibited to different degrees following Al exposure. The MDA content also significantly increased with increasing Al concentrations. SRAP results indicated significant differences between Al treatments and controls in terms of SRAP profile, and the genomic template stability (GTS) decreased with increasing Al concentration and duration. These… More
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  • Biochar Effectively Reduces Ammonia Volatilization From Nitrogen-Applied Soils in Tea and Bamboo Plantations
  • Abstract Intensive practices in forest soils result in dramatic nitrogen (N) losses, particularly ammonia (NH3) volatilization, to adjacent environmental areas. A soil column experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of bamboo biochar on NH3 volatilization from tea garden and bamboo forest soils. The results showed that biochar amendment effectively reduced NH3 volatilization from tea garden and bamboo forest soil by 79.2% and 75.5%, respectively. The soil pH values increased by 0.53-0.61 units after biochar application. The NH4+-N and total N of both soils were 13.8-29.7% and 34.0-41.9% higher under the biochar treatments than under the control treatment, respectively. In addition,… More
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  • Green Synthesis of Bimetallic Nanoparticles From Prosopis juliflora (Sw) DC., and Its Effect Against Cotton Mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)
  • Abstract Phenacoccus solenopsis has been recognized as an aggressively invasive species on cotton plants in different countries. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of green synthesized Cu/Zn-nanoparticles using aqueous leaf extract of Prosopis juliflora (mezquite) against P. solenopsis. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed bimetallic nanoparticles of Cu/Zn-NPs with spherical shape with varying size of 74.33 nm to 59.46 nm. More than 30% mortality of P. solenopsis was observed with Cu/Zn-nanoparticles (100 ppm) at 96 hours after treatment. Negligible mortality of P. solenopsis was recorded with Cu/Zn solution (100 ppm) and aqueous P. juliflora extracts. The results of the… More
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  • Morphometric and Biochemical Changes in Agave americana L. Plantlets Induced By Ethyl Methanesulfonate
  • Abstract A. americana L. is a crop with very little genetic variability. In order to evaluate the effect of ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) to induce variability in in vitro plantlets of A. americana, different explants (meristems, leaves and roots) were evaluated for the production of callus. MS medium supplemented with ANA (2.68 μM) and BAP (2.68 μM) was used. Callus obtained from apical meristem were treated with 15 mM EMS for two hours after which shoot formation was induced using 2,4-D (0.11 μM) and BAP (44 μM). The EMS induced variations in the morphometric and morphological parameters of the plantlets obtained, with… More
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  • The Origin and Identity of the Calyculus in Loranthaceae: Inferred From the Floral Organogenesis of Loranthus tanakae Franch. & Sav.
  • Abstract The flowers of the hemiparasitic family Loranthaceae are always subtended by a rimmed structure known as the calyculus. The origin and identity of the calyculus have been disputed for more than a century. Various hypotheses have been proposed, for example, an outgrowth of the axis, a reduced calyx, and a bracteolar (prophyllar) origin, but controversies remain. To obtain a plausible explanation of the origin of the calyculus, we investigated the flowers of Loranthus tanakae using scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy to observe the entire developmental process of the floral parts. Our results show that bracts are not present in… More
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  • Pollen Morphology of Indian Species of Saraca L. (Leguminosae)-A Threatened and Legendary Medicinal Tree
  • Abstract The genus Saraca L. (Leguminosae) is a universal panacea in herbal medicine. The present study investigates the comparative pollen morphology of four species of Saraca viz. S. asoca (Roxb.) de Wilde, S. declinata (Jack) Miq., S. indica L., and S. thaipingensis Cantley ex Prain growing in India to reveal differences of their pollen structures to aid taxonomic and evolutionary values. The detailed morphology and surface structure of pollen grains were studied and described using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The pollen grains of Saraca showed isopolar, para-syncolporate, tricolporate, with radially symmetric, prolate and prolate-spheroidal structure. The surface of pollen… More
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  • Antifungal Activity of Schinifoline Against Candida Albicans in Caenorhabditis Elegans
  • Abstract Zanthoxylum schinifolium has been used as spices and traditional medicine in China for hundreds of years. A variety of active substances have been isolated from Zanthoxylum schinifolium using biological and chemical techniques. Among these substances, the effect of schinifoline has gradually attracted much attention. Candida albicans is one of the most common pathogens isolated from the gastrointestinal tract, vagina, and mouth in healthy individuals. In a healthy population, there are various mechanisms in host, such as the microbial flora, the epithelial barriers, and the innate immune system, that can control the presence of Candida albicans. However, when host immunity is… More
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  • Control Alternatives for Damping-Off in Tomato Seedling Production
  • Abstract In two tomato genotypes, we assessed control alternatives for damping-off with combinations of chemical fungicides and native/commercial strains of biological agents. Forty treatments consisting of 19 levels of mixing products, chemical fungicides, native strains and commercial products from biological control agents, and untreated treatment were used onto Ramsés and Toro hybrids. They were distributed on an incomplete block design in divided plots arrangement, where genotypes constitute the larger ones and the 8-repetition mixed products, the smaller ones. Putting 180 mL of fungal complexes, made of spores and mycellium Fusarium-solani (2 × 106 UFC), Rhizoctonia-solani (1 × 106 UFC), Phytophthora-capsici (1… More
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  • Effects of Various Light-Emitting Diode (LEd) Wavelengths on the Growth of Scenedesmus Obliquus Fachb-12 and Accumulation of Astaxanthin
  • Abstract Given the central role of light in the algal photosynthesis, respiration, cell division, growth and the accumulation of value products, the effects of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) light wavelengths (blue, white, red and green) were studied in Scenedesmus obliquus. Biomass, residual nutrient amount, soluble protein, astaxanthin and reactive oxygen species, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) activity were analyzed to determine the effects of different monochromatic light wavelengths via biochemical methods. The results showed that blue light wavelength is the optimal light wavelength for phosphorus removal efficiency and the accumulation of biomass and astaxanthin in S. obliquus. Meanwhile, high… More
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