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Dynamic Lung Modeling and Tumor Tracking Using Deformable Image Registration and Geometric Smoothing

Yongjie Zhang, Yiming Jing, Xinghua Liang, Guoliang Xu, Lei Dong

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA. Email: {jessicaz, yjing, xliang1}
LSEC, Institute of Computational Mathematics, Academy of Mathematics and System Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China. Email:
Scripps Proton Therapy Center, 9577 Summers Ridge Road, San Diego, CA 92121, USA. Email: Dong.Lei@ScrippsHealth.Org

Molecular & Cellular Biomechanics 2012, 9(3), 213-226.


A greyscale-based fully automatic deformable image registration algorithm, based on an optical flow method together with geometric smoothing, is developed for dynamic lung modeling and tumor tracking. In our computational processing pipeline, the input data is a set of 4D CT images with 10 phases. The triangle mesh of the lung model is directly extracted from the more stable exhale phase (Phase 5). In addition, we represent the lung surface model in 3D volumetric format by applying a signed distance function and then generate tetrahedral meshes. Our registration algorithm works for both triangle and tetrahedral meshes. In CT images, the intensity value reflects the local tissue density. For each grid point, we calculate the displacement from the static image (Phase 5) to match with the moving image (other phases) by using merely intensity values of the CT images. The optical flow computation is followed by a regularization of the deformation field using geometric smoothing. Lung volume change and the maximum lung tissue movement are used to evaluate the accuracy of the application. Our testing results suggest that the application of deformable registration algorithm is an effective way for delineating and tracking tumor motion in image-guided radiotherapy.


Cite This Article

Zhang, Y., Jing, Y., Liang, X., Xu, G., Dong, L. (2012). Dynamic Lung Modeling and Tumor Tracking Using Deformable Image Registration and Geometric Smoothing. Molecular & Cellular Biomechanics, 9(3), 213–226.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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