Vol.18, No.3, 2021, pp.123-129, doi:10.32604/mcb.2021.015993
Surface Topography Assessments of Spine Shape Change within the Day in Healthy Male Adults
  • Jianming Lu1,*, Liangliang Xiang2, Huw Wiltshire3
1 College of Science & Technology, Ningbo University, Ningbo, 315300, China
2 Auckland Bioengineering Institute, University of Auckland, Auckland, 1010, New Zealand
3 Cardiff School of Sport & Health Sciences, Cardiff Metropolitan University, Cardiff, CF5 2YB, UK
* Corresponding Author: Jianming Lu. Email:
Received 29 January 2021; Accepted 12 May 2021; Issue published 15 July 2021
Surface topography is a no-invasive, radiation-free method that can measure sufficient surface spine parameters by the structured back surface scan and a precise anatomical landmarks recognition. The purpose of the present study was to measure the spine shape parameter changes within the day via the DIERS Formetric 4D analysis system. Ten male healthy volunteers were recruited to participate in the experiment. All participants were sedentary people with the average sitting time during study or work t ≥ 8 h and without any back disease in the past six months. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA, which set time points within the day as variable and shape results as the dependent variable. The significant difference could be found for the trunk length VP-DM with a one-way ANOVA test of p = 0.011. There was a significant difference (p = 0.024) between time slots of 9 am and 7 pm with 95%CI (–15.83, –1.01) and MD –8.42. No significant difference statistically for the scoliosis angle and the p-value of the one-way ANOVA test is 0.715. There was no significant difference for trunk inclination VP-DM with a one-way ANOVA test of p = 0.284. Statistical analysis depicted no significant difference for the trunk imbalance VP-DM with a one-way ANOVA test of p = 0.730. Trunk length VP-DM was significantly decreased in the afternoon and evening. This may be a potential back pain risk for sedentary individuals. Regular physical activity and mild to moderate exercise are recommended to improve spinal stability and maintain spinal shape.
Surface topography; DIERS Formetric 4D; spine shape; postural assessment
Cite This Article
Lu, J., Xiang, L., Wiltshire, H. (2021). Surface Topography Assessments of Spine Shape Change within the Day in Healthy Male Adults. Molecular & Cellular Biomechanics, 18(3), 123–129.
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