Vol.18, No.2, 2021, pp.51-67, doi:10.32604/mcb.2021.015136
OPEN ACCESS
REVIEW
Effect of Mechanical Forces on the Behavior of Dental Stem Cells: A Scoping Review of In-Vitro Studies
  • Maryam Rezai Rad1, Sadra Mohaghegh2, Farnaz Kouhestani3, Saeed Reza Motamedian4,*
1 Dental Research Center, Research Institute of Dental Sciences, School of Dentistry, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, 1983963113, Iran
2 Student Research Committee, School of Dentistry, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, 1983963113, Iran
3 Department of Periodontics, School of Dentistry, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, 1439955991, Iran
4 Dentofacial Deformities Research Center, Research Institute of Dental Sciences, Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, 1983963113, Iran
* Corresponding Author: Saeed Reza Motamedian. Email:
Received 25 November 2020; Accepted 24 February 2021; Issue published 09 April 2021
Abstract
This article is a scoping review of the studies that assessed the effect of mechanical forces on the behavior of dental stem cells (DSCs). PubMed and Scopus searches were done for in-vitro studies evaluating the effect of tension, hydrostatic pressure (i.e., the pressure applied through an incompressible fluid), compression, simulated microgravity, and vibration on DSCs. The following factors were analyzed: osteogenic/odontogenic differentiation, proliferation, adhesion and migration. Articles were reviewed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews extension for scoping reviews (PRISMA-ScR) guideline. Included studies were evaluated based on the modified Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT). A total of 18 studies published from 2008–2019 were included. Nine studies were focusing on Periodontal ligament Stem Cells (PDLSCs), eight studies on Dental Pulp Stem Cells (DPSCs) and one study on Stem Cells from Apical Papilla (SCAP). Results showed that tension, three-dimensional stress and simulated microgravity promoted the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of PDLSCs. DPSCs proliferation increased after microgravity and tension exertion. In addition, dynamic hydrostatic pressure and compression promoted odontogenic differentiation of DPSCs. Besides, mechanical stimuli increased the osteogenic differentiation of DPSCs. One study analyzed the effect of carrier features on the response of DSCs to 3D-stress and showed that cells cultivated on scaffolds with 30% bioactive glass (BAG) had the highest osteogenic differentiation compared to other ratios of BAG. It has been shown that increasing the duration of tension (i.e., from 3 h to 24 h force application) enhanced the positive effect of force application on the osteogenic differentiation of DSCs. In conclusion, all types of mechanical forces except uniaxial tension increased the osteogenic/odontogenic differentiation of DSCs. In addition, the effect of mechanical stimulation on the proliferation of DSCs differs based on the type of stem cells and mechanical force.
Keywords
Tension; compression; biophysics; stem cells; proliferation; differentiation
Cite This Article
Rad, M. R., Mohaghegh, S., Kouhestani, F., Motamedian, S. R. (2021). Effect of Mechanical Forces on the Behavior of Dental Stem Cells: A Scoping Review of In-Vitro Studies. Molecular & Cellular Biomechanics, 18(2), 51–67.
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