Vol.7, No.7, 2019-Table of Contents
  • Compression Behaviors of Parallel Bamboo Strand Lumber Under Static Loading
  • Abstract In order to investigate the influence of length and compression directions upon behaviour of parallel bamboo strand lumber (PBSL) specimens, 240 axial compression tests have been performed. With three similar one different typical failure modes, the mechanical performance for PBSL specimens under compression parallel to grain and perpendicular to grain are different as a whole. From the point of the characteristic values, the compression strength parallel to grain is 2.1 times of the compression strength perpendicular to grain. The elastic modulus for compression parallel to grain is 3.64 times of the compression strength perpendicular to grain. While the compression ratios… More
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  • Recent Development of Cardanol Based Polymer Materials-A Review
  • Abstract Polymers from renewable resources are receiving tremendous attention due to the increasing concerns on the depletion of fossil oils and deteriorated environments. Cardanol, as an abundant and renewable chemical raw material, has been widely used for the production of renewable polymer materials via converting into various of chemical monomers with active functional groups. This comprehensive review deals with various aspects of cardanol as a starting material the preparing various polymer and polymer composites such as benzoxazine resins, phenolic resin, polyurethanes, epoxy resin, vinyl ester polymers, polyamide and cyanate ester resins. The assessment of the future prospects for the use of… More
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  • Green Nanocomposites Made With Polyvinyl Alcohol and Cellulose Nanofibers Isolated From Recycled Paper
  • Abstract This paper reports green nanocomposites made by blending polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) with cellulose nanofiber (CNF) isolated from recycled deinked copy/printing paper (DIP). The reinforcement effect of DIPCNF in the nanocomposites is compared with other CNFs isolated from native cotton and hardwood by means of TEMPO-oxidation. The prepared PVA-CNF nanocomposites are characterized in terms of morphology, chemical interaction, structural, thermal and mechanical properties. X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirm the reinforcing ability of cellulose nanofibers into PVA. By blending CNFs into PVA matrix, the thermal stability of the nanocomposites is improved and DIPCNF shows similar enhancement effect with COCNF… More
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  • Influence and Dispersion of Nanofiber of Wood Modified on Properties of Cement Based Mortars
  • Abstract Wood nanofibers from industrial waste have been used as polymeric material to reinforce the cement paste to a content of up to 2% by weight of cement. The effect of the wood nanofibre content on the porosity, the compressive strength and the degree of hydration of the cement was studied. The results showed an improvement in compressive strength of over 50% with 1% of added fiberwood. Chemical modification of nanofiber wood by grafting alkyl chains to their surface can reduce the amount of water absorbed by the sample. Addition of an anionic additive (SDBS) to the mixing water improves the… More
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  • Synthesis of Water-Soluble Chitosan From Squid Pens Waste for Capsule Shell Materials
  • Abstract Water-Soluble Chitosan (WSC) has been sucessfuly synthesized from squid pens waste. The synthesis of chitosan from chitin was carried out by optimization of deacetylation temperature and time. Chitin was obtained from squid pens waste by demineralization and deproteinization process. HCl 7% was used for demineralization and NaOH 10% at 60°C was applied for deproteinization process. Deacetylation reaction was carried out at varied temperatures i.e., 60°C, 70°C, 80°C, 90°C and 100°C in NaOH 50% solution for 10 hours. Deacetylation reaction time were varied for 2 hours, 4 hours, 6 hours, 8 hours, and 10 hours. The crude chitosan obtained then reacted… More
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  • Functionalised Poly(Vinyl Alcohol)/Graphene Oxide as Polymer Composite Electrolyte Membranes
  • Abstract Crosslinked poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) based composite films were prepared as polyelectrolyte membranes for low temperature direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFC). The membranes were functionalised by means of the addition of graphene oxide (GO) and sulfonated graphene oxide (SGO) and crosslinked with sulfosuccinic acid (SSA). The chemical structure was corroborated and suitable thermal properties were found. Although the addition of GO and SGO slightly decreased the proton conductivity of the membranes, a significant reduction of the ethanol solution swelling and crossover was encountered, more relevant for those functionalised with SGO. In general, the composite membranes were stable under simulated service conditions.… More
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  • Evaluation of Antioxidants, Total Phenolics and Antimicrobial Activities of Ethyl Acetate Extracts From Fungi Grown on Rice Straw
  • Abstract Rice straw (RS) collected from Egyptian agricultural environment (Al-Masied village-Alsharqia Governorate-Egypt) was used as substrate for three fungal isolates namely: 4b, 1Asp, Pleurotus ostreatus NRRL 3501 and mixed culture of (4b, 1Asp). Isolates number 4b and 1Asp were identified using the molecular technique (18S rRNA). Isolate 4b and 1Asp, were identified as Trichoderma saturnisporum MN1-EGY and Aspergillus niger MN2-EGY, respectively. Trichoderma saturnisporum MN1-EGY extract exhibited the highest antimicrobial activity compared to the other fungal extracts. Total phenolic, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities were also determined from the ethyl acetate extract of rice straw inoculated by these fungi. The antioxidant scavenging concentration(SC50)… More
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  • Morphological Characterization of Brazil Nut Tree (Bertholletia excelsa) Fruit Pericarp
  • Abstract This article presents the overall morphological structure of the Brazil nut tree (Bertholletia excelsa) fruit pericarp, from macro to nano scale. The acquired knowledge would be used for the development of new applications, like using the materials as fillers for biocomposites, or as a hierarchical architecture model for biomimetics. This research was performed using stereo and light microscopy and conventional and force field emission scanning electron microscopy. The pericarp presents three layers: the exocarp, a dark gray, brittle and fragile outer layer; the mesocarp, a beige, dry, rigid, impermeable and fibrous intermediate layer; and the endocarp, an inner layer with… More
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