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The presented work explores the potential use of condensed tannin from Chinese bayberry to prepare polyvinyl alcohol-based films using a facile solvent casting method. Polyvinyl alcohol films incorporated with Chinese bayberry tannin presented good performance on antioxidant and thermal degradation capacity, which may provide broader formulation options for packaging materials.
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  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    CLT Fabricated with Gmelina arborea and Tectona grandis Wood from Fast-Growth Forest Plantations: Physical and Mechanical Properties

    Freddy Muñoz1, Carolina Tenorio1, Róger Moya1,*, Angel Navarro-Mora2
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.1, pp. 1-17, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.017392
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Advanced Wood Composites from Renewable Materials)
    Abstract Fabrication and use of Cross Laminated Timber (CLT) using tropical woods is still limited at present. Therefore objective of the present study aims to determine the possibility of using CLT panels of 3 and 5 layers, fabricated with Tectona grandis and Gmelina arborea wood using adhesive of isocyanate polymer emulsion system catalyzed with polymeric isocyanate. Delamination, water absorption, density, flexure test, compression and glue-line shear were evaluated using ANSI/APA PRG320-2012 ASTM D198 and ASTM D4761 standard. The results showed that CLT panels of T. grandis presented higher values of density, less water absorption and lower delamination, with no evident differences… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Development of Antioxidant Packaging Film Based on Chinese Bayberry Tannin Extract and Polyvinyl Alcohol

    Jingjing Liao1,2, Jinxing Li2, Hongyan Wang3, Yan Zhu2, Hisham Essawy4, Guanben Du1,2,*, Xiaojian Zhou2,*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.1, pp. 19-31, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2021.016152
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Food Packaging Materials Based on Renewable Resources)
    Abstract The current work explores the potential use of commercial Chinese bayberry tannin (BT) to develop antioxidant PVA-based films using solvent casting process for packaging applications. The effect of BT concentration on opacity, water resistance and antioxidant capacity of resulting films was investigated. Properties like tensile strength, thermal behavior, and morphological aspects were also characterized. The experimental results showed that PVA/BT films formed with uniformly brown color and generally good transparency, offering good antioxidant ability. The PVA film containing BT presented slightly higher water resistance according to the results of moisture content and water vapor permeability, especially at low BT content… More >

    Graphic Abstract

    Development of Antioxidant Packaging Film Based on Chinese Bayberry Tannin Extract and Polyvinyl Alcohol

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Analysis of the Impact Resistance of Photovoltaic Panels Based on the Effective Thickness Method

    Jian Gong1, Lingzhi Xie1,2,*, Yongxue Li1, Zhichun Ni3, Qingzhu Wei3, Yupeng Wu4, Haonan Cheng5
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.1, pp. 33-51, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2021.016262
    Abstract Based on the recent development of renewable energy utilization technology, in addition to centralized photovoltaic power plants, distributed photovoltaic power generation systems represented by building-integrated photovoltaic systems are frequently employed for power supply. Therefore, in the architectural design, the double-glass photovoltaic module used in the integrated photovoltaic building system puts forward a higher load-bearing capacity requirement and the corresponding simplified method of carrying capacity check. This article focuses on the simplified method of checking the bearing capacity of the four-sided simply supported double-glass photovoltaic module. First, the principle of equivalent stiffness is used to calculate the effective thickness. Then, the… More >

    Graphic Abstract

    Analysis of the Impact Resistance of Photovoltaic Panels Based on the Effective Thickness Method

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Understanding the Impacts of Plant Capacities and Uncertainties on the Techno-Economic Analysis of Cross-Laminated Timber Production in the Southern U.S.

    Zhenzhen Zhang1, Kai Lan2,*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.1, pp. 53-73, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.017506
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Research and Innovations in Engineered Timber and Mass Timber Products for Sustainable Built-Environment)
    Abstract Understanding the economic feasibility of cross-laminated timber (CLT), an emerging and sustainable alternative to concrete and steel, is critical for the rapid expansion of the mass timber industry. However, previous studies on economic performance of CLT have not fully considered the variations in the feedstock, plant capacities, manufacturing parameters, and capital and operating costs. This study fills this gap by developing a techno-economic analysis of producing CLT panels in the Southern United States. The effects of those variations on minimum selling price (MSP) of CLT panels are explored by Monte Carlo simulation. The results show that, across all the plant… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Physical and Mechanical Properties of Eco-Friendly Composites Made from Wood Dust and Recycled Polystyrene

    Dafni Foti1, Eleni E. Voulgaridou1, Sotirios Karastergiou2, Hamid R. Taghiyari3, Antonios N. Papadopoulos1,*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.1, pp. 75-88, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.017759
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Advanced Wood Composites from Renewable Materials)
    Abstract The development of alternative wood composites based on the use of waste or recycled materials can be beneficial due to over exploitation of natural resources. Under this frame, an option for the successful utilization of waste polystyrene which avoids environmental problems that formaldehyde adhesives cause and also reduces waste disposal, is its potential application as a binder for the production of value-added environmentally friendly and low cost wood composites. Two types of panel were successfully made, consisting of wood dust and two recycled polystyrene contents, namely, 15% and 30%. Both physical properties, water absorption and thickness swelling, and mechanical properties,… More >

    Graphic Abstract

    Physical and Mechanical Properties of Eco-Friendly Composites Made from Wood Dust and Recycled Polystyrene

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Numerical Investigation of Connection Performance of Timber-Concrete Composite Slabs with Inclined Self-Tapping Screws under High Temperature

    Zhentao Chen1, Weidong Lu1,2,*, Yingwei Bao1, Jun Zhang1, Lu Wang1, Kong Yue1
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.1, pp. 89-104, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2021.015925
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Research and Innovations in Engineered Timber and Mass Timber Products for Sustainable Built-Environment)
    Abstract The timber-concrete composite (TCC) slabs have become a preferred choice of floor systems in modern multi story timber buildings. This TCC slab consisted of timber and a concrete slab which were commonly connected together with inclined self-tapping screws (STSs). To more accurately predict the fire performance of TCC slabs, the mechanical behavior of TCC connections under high temperature was investigated by numerical simulation in this study. The interface slip of TCC connections was simulated by a proposed Finite Element (FE) model at room temperature, and different diameter and penetration length screws were considered. The effectiveness of this FE model was… More >

    Graphic Abstract

    Numerical Investigation of Connection Performance of Timber-Concrete Composite Slabs with Inclined Self-Tapping Screws under High Temperature

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Pull-out Behaviour of Axially Loaded Screwed-in Threaded Rods Embedded in CLT Elements: Experimental Study

    Huifeng Yang1,*, Junfeng Ji1, Haotian Tao2, Benkai Shi1, Junbin Hu1, Bo Wen3
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.1, pp. 105-117, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2021.016118
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Research and Innovations in Engineered Timber and Mass Timber Products for Sustainable Built-Environment)
    Abstract Experimental investigation on the pull-out behaviour, including the withdrawal capacity, slip stiffness and interfacial shear stress, of axially loaded screwed-in threaded rod embedded in cross laminated timber (CLT) was conducted. Specimens with varying embedment length and different number of threaded rods were tested in this study. To prevent premature splitting failure of timber, some specimens were reinforced in the direction perpendicular to the timber grain with self-tapping screws. Test results showed that the screwed-in threaded rod connections exhibited good pull-out behaviour with high withdrawal capacity and slip stiffness. Within a certain range, the withdrawal capacity increases considerably with the increase… More >

    Graphic Abstract

    Pull-out Behaviour of Axially Loaded Screwed-in Threaded Rods Embedded in CLT Elements: Experimental Study

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Intratree Variation in Viscoelastic Properties of Cell Walls of Masson Pine (Pinus Massoniana Lamb)

    Shaoxiang Cai1, Yuliang Guo1, Yanjun Li2,*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.1, pp. 119-133, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.016260
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Advanced Wood Composites from Renewable Materials)
    Abstract In this study, Pinus massoniana Lamb at different heights, across the annual rings, and between earlywood and latewood was measured by X-ray diffraction and the chemical composition was analyzed by chemical treatment. Results indicated that the microfibril angle (MFA) decreased and the chemical composition changed little with the increase in height from 1 m to 9 m. In the radial direction, the MFA decreased and the chemical composition changed little with an increase in annual rings. The cellulose content of latewood was higher than that of earlywood. The viscoelastic changes of wood cell walls at different heights, across the annual rings by… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Improving the Dispersibility of Poly(urea-formaldehyde) Microcapsules for Self-Healing Coatings Using Preparation Process

    Yuhao Jiang, Jialan Yao, Chengfei Zhu*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.1, pp. 135-148, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2021.016304
    Abstract Poly(urea-formaldehyde) (PUF) microcapsules were prepared by in-situ polymerization with four different processes in this paper. The chemical composition, surface morphology, particle size distribution, and thermal stability were characterized by FTIR, SEM, particle size analyzer, and TGA, respectively. The results demonstrated that the agglomeration of the PUF microcapsules was related to the agglomeration of the emulsion particles caused by the changes of emulsion interface during the shell polymerization. Due to the slow deposition of the shell material, the PUF microcapsules with the core-shell structure prepared by the process with ammonium chloride as the last additive showed good dispersibility with an average… More >

    Graphic Abstract

    Improving the Dispersibility of Poly(urea-formaldehyde) Microcapsules for Self-Healing Coatings Using Preparation Process

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Effect of Mixing Strategy on the Structure-Properties of the PLA/PBAT Blends Incorporated with CNC

    Deniz Sema Sarul1, Dogan Arslan2, Emre Vatansever1, Yusuf Kahraman2, Ali Durmus3, Reza Salehiyan4, Mohammadreza Nofar1,2,*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.1, pp. 149-164, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.017003
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Polylactide Based Biopolymeric Systems)
    Abstract Polylactide (PLA)/poly (butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) blend nanocomposites including 3 wt% of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) were prepared by melt compounding method in a twin-screw extruder and an internal mixer. Blend nanocomposites were formulated by diluting three different masterbatches prepared by solution casting method that contained 7 wt% of CNC. These masterbatches were: (m1) PLA/PBAT/CNC masterbatch; (m2) PLA/CNC masterbatch; and (m3) PBAT/CNC masterbatch. These were to explore how different preparation methods affect the dispersion and localization of CNC and hence the properties of PLA/PBAT/CNC blend nanocomposites. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to study the structural changes of the blends. Rheological properties… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Slenderness Ratio Effect on the Eccentric Compression Performance of Chamfered Laminated Bamboo Lumber Columns

    Ke Zhou1,2, Haitao Li1,2,*, Assima Dauletbek1,2, Dong Yang1,2, Zhenhua Xiong3, Rodolfo Lorenzo4, Kun Zhou5, Ileana Corbi6, Ottavia Corbi6
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.1, pp. 165-182, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2021.017223
    Abstract Eccentric compression tests on 15 chamfered laminated bamboo lumber (LBL) columns with a height ranging from 600 to 3000 mm were conducted in order to study the eccentric mechanical performance. The failure of all specimens was caused by the crack of bamboo fiber in the tensile region. When the ultimate strength was reached, except specimens with a height of 600 mm, all other specimens could bear large deformation, showing good ductility. The lateral displacements of the specimens under eccentric compression were approximately parabolic in the direction of column height. The ultimate bending moment of LBL columns with different slenderness ratios… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Long-Term Loading Test of Reinforced Glulam Beam

    Nan Guo1, Jing Ren1, Ling Li1,*, Yan Zhao2, Mingtao Wu1
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.1, pp. 183-201, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2021.015756
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Renewable building materials and properties)
    Abstract Due to creep characteristics of wood, long-term loading can cause a significant stress loss of steel bars in reinforced glulam beams and high long-term deflection of the beam midspan. In this study, 15 glulam beams were subjected to a 90-day long-term loading test, and the effects of long-term loading value, reinforcement ratio and prestress level on the stress of steel bars, midspan long-term deflection, and other parameters were compared and analyzed. The main conclusions drawn from this study were that the long-term deflection of the reinforced glulam beams accounted for 22.5%, 20.6%, and 18.2% of the total deflection respectively when… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Study of Mutual Improvement of Completed Weathered Phyllite and Red Clay Based on Neutralization Effects of Swelling and Shrinkage Deformation

    Xiushao Zhao1, Qijing Yang1,2,*, Jianglong Rao1, Daxin Geng1, Zhouyong Tan1
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.1, pp. 203-218, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2021.015854
    Abstract Completely weathered phyllite (CWP) soil is a kind of special soil with high swell potential, while red clay is a special soil with high shrinkage. This means that these two kinds of special soils are usually not suitable for direct use as subgrade fill. To reduce the swell index of the CWP soil and the shrinkage of red clay at the same time, it was proposed to blend the CWP soil with red clay to improve their basic characteristics. A series of swell index tests and dry-wet cycle tests of the blended soils have been carried out at varying blending… More >

    Graphic Abstract

    Study of Mutual Improvement of Completed Weathered Phyllite and Red Clay Based on Neutralization Effects of Swelling and Shrinkage Deformation

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Mechanical Properties and Constitutive Relationship of the High-Durable Parallel Strand Bamboo

    Yousef Y. Sewar1, Zhancheng Zhang1, Xinmiao Meng1,*, Mohammed Y. Wahan1, Hanxiao Qi1,2, Qahtan M. Al-Shami1,3, Shijiao Luo1
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.1, pp. 219-235, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2021.016013
    Abstract Engineered bamboo has recently received lots of attention of civil engineers and professional researchers due to its better mechanical performance than that of softwood timber. Parallel strand bamboo is one important part of engineered bamboo for its excellent durable performance compared to the laminated veneer bamboo. The required curing temperature in hot-pressing process is usually higher than 120°C to reduce the content of nutritional ingredients and hemy cellulose, and to avoid the decay from the environment and insects. Nonetheless, the appearance of engineered bamboo gets darker with the increase of temperature during the hot-pressing process. In order to minimize the… More >

    Graphic Abstract

    Mechanical Properties and Constitutive Relationship of the High-Durable Parallel Strand Bamboo

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