Special Issue "Bio-Composite Materials and Structures-2021"

Submission Deadline: 31 May 2022 (closed)
Guest Editors
Haitao Li, Professor, Nanjing Forestry University, China.
Professor Haitao Li, Joint Training PhD by Tongji University and the University of Western Australia, is the Vice Dean of College of Civil Engineering in Nanjing Forestry University. He has published more than 100 papers and authorized more than 80 patents. He has won 8 scientific award ranked top 1 and worked as project leaders for ISO standard, CECS and so on. He has written 3 books and worked as INBAR Construction Task Force Key Expert, ISO TC165 timber structure committee, the International Scientific Committee on the Analysis and Restoration of Structures of Architectural Heritage (ISCARSAH) and so on. He is also one of the co-founding members of the International Research Centre for Bio-composite Building Materials and Structures, which was established in 2018 and is located in Nanjing Forestry University. He also played a leading role in launching the ACEM conference (Advances in Civil Engineering Materials) and World Symposium on Bio-composite Materials and Structures (SBMS). He also works as the editor or reviewer for more than 20 SCI journals.

Mahmud Ashraf, Professor, Deakin University, Australia.
Mahmud Ashraf is the Head of Civil and Environmental Engineering discipline within the School of Engineering in Deakin University, Australia. He always embraces new concepts and materials in structural applications and is an advocate of hybrid structures to minimise environmental impact due to construction. His PhD research at Imperial College London (UK) was one of the first contributions towards development of a strain based design technique, which is currently known as the Continuous Strength Method. Over the years, Mahmud investigated various aspects of geopolymer concrete, innovative composite materials and 3D printed metallic structures. In recent times, he has been contributing heavily to structural applications of renewable materials including timber and bamboo for a sustainable future. With significant industry support, he is currently leading the Engineered Timber Structures Research Group in Deakin University and is also one of the research theme leaders in 3DEC (Deakin Digital Design and Engineering Centre). Mahmud is an academic adviser to WoodSolutions and is a task force member of INBAR (International Network for Bamboo and Rattan).

Rodolfo Lorenzo, University College London, UK.
Dr Rodolfo Lorenzo joined UCL in 2012 with over 7-years previous design experience in the UK specialist structural engineering consultancies Ramboll UK and Flint and Neill Ltd (now COWI UK). Dr Lorenzo was the Principal Investigator of the EPSRC-funded project BIM Bamboo (Grant Ref EP/M017702/1) focused on the development of the basic research and proof-of-concept processes to generate the digital databases of individual bamboo poles to support a new design and fabrication framework based on the principles of Building Information Modelling (BIM) and the use of modern technologies. Dr Lorenzo was also the Principal Investigator of an EPSRC Global Challenges Research Fund Institutional Sponsorship Award 2016 - University College London (Grant Ref EP/P510890/1). This grant funded a field trip to China in the summer of 2016 to carry out the first trial implementation of the processes of the BIM Bamboo project in the facilities of a bamboo distributor in Jiangxi province. Finally, Dr Lorenzo has been a Member of the Task Force on Bamboo Construction of the International Network for Bamboo and Rattan (INBAR) since January 2015.

Edwin Zea, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich, Switzerland.
Dr. Edwin Zea is Senior Assistant at the Chair for Sustainable Construction ETH Zürich. He holds a MSc degree in Urban environmental Management from Wageningen University in The Netherlands and PhD from the ETH Zürich in Switzerland. His work focuses on the sustainability assessment of construction materials and buildings. He makes special emphasis on the assessment of post-disaster reconstruction and social housing projects in a wide variety of geographical context. His work has been published in many renowned scientific journals of his field of research and presented in several International conferences. Currently, his research aims to bridge the gap between innovation and development from research institutions and their application on the construction industry. He also advises several projects and programs in Africa and Latin America in subjects of Environmental Assessment, Carbon Crediting and circular economy measures on the built environment.


With the quick development of economic, the mineral resources become fewer and fewer and the living environment for our globe becomes worse and worse. Now more and more people are paying attention to the natural green materials such as timber, bamboo, straw and other biomass materials. These renewable materials could be developed into many kinds of products which could be used in our everyday life. One of the main ways is construction materials which could offer good living conditions for our human being compared with other materials from minerals. Making full use of these kinds of materials is a sustainable way to develop our globe.


This Special Issue is mainly about the green materials and structures, such as timber, bamboo, straw and other biomass materials and structures and so on.


Papers about the test methods, properties and structural applications for sustainable materials and structures both from macroscopic and microcosmic are welcome.

Strain; Stress; Strength; Modulus; Deflection; Stiffness; Ductility; Tensile;Compression; Shear; Bending; Bricks; Beam; Column; Joint; Frame; Bamboo; Wood; Timber; CLT; Straw; Bio-Composite Materials and Structures

Published Papers
  • Influence of Dowel Center Spacing on Chamfered-Joint Components Made by Cupressus funebris Wood
  • Abstract The traditional tenon and mortise joint has low processing efficiency and a weak theoretical basis, making the structure easy to deform and damage, reducing the safety, and increasing waste of resources. This study aims to determine the optimum dowel center spacing parameter for chamfered-joint components and the maximum value of the strength of joints loaded into bending strength and tensile strength. In this study, an integrated optimization method combining the single-factor test and one-way ANOVA analysis was proposed to study the influence of the dowel center spacing on the bending strength and the tensile strength of chamfered-joint components made by… More
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  • A Review of Fibre Reinforced Polymer (FRP) Reinforced Concrete Composite Column Members Modelling and Analysis Techniques
  • Abstract The use of fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) to confine concrete columns improves the strength and ductility of the columns by reducing passive lateral confinement pressure. Many numerical and analytical formulations have been proposed in the literature to describe the compressive behaviour of FRP confined concrete under both monotonic and cyclic loads. However, the effect of a stress/strain level in the columns has not been well defined because of the lack of well-defined strategies of modelling and oversimplification of the model. This paper reviews the existing FRP combinations and the available numerical and analytical methods to determine the effectiveness of the adopted… More
  •   Views:1424       Downloads:843        Download PDF

  • Exploration of Waterproofness of Concrete and Alkali-Aggregate Using Hydrophobic Impregnation and Coating
  • Abstract Part of the tunnel spoil can not be used for concrete due to alkali-aggregate reaction (AAR). Water is an indispensable condition for AAR, so separating the alkali-aggregate from water is of great benefit to controlling the AAR. This paper investigates the modification of concrete and aggregate by hydrophobic impregnation and organic coating and then evaluates their waterproof and mechanical properties by dynamic contact angle (DCA), ultrasonic wave velocity, scanning electron microscope (SEM), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and so on. For waterproofness, hydrophobic impregnation and organic coating can both improve the waterproofness of concrete and aggregate. The organic coating is suitable… More
  •   Views:513       Downloads:296        Download PDF

  • Research on Dynamic and Static Test Methods for Evaluating the Poisson’s Ratio of Oriented Strand Board
  • Abstract In this article, dynamic method and static method of testing Poisson’s ratio of OSB (Oriented Strand Board) were proposed. Through modal and static numerical analyses, the position where the transverse stress is equal to zero was determined. The binary linear regression method was applied to express the gluing position of the strain gauge as a relational expression that depended on the length-width ratio and width-thickness ratio of the cantilever plate. Then the longitudinal and transverse Poisson’s ratios of OSB were measured by the given dynamic and static methods. In addition, the test results of OSB Poisson’s ratio were analyzed with… More
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  • Comparative Study on the Properties of Inorganic Silicate and Organic Phenolic Prepolymer Modified Poplar Wood by Vacuum Cycle Pressurization
  • Abstract To enhance mechanical properties and improve flame retardancy and smoke suppression of fast-growing poplar wood in wood applications, the wood was impregnated and modified. An organic phenolic prepolymer and inorganic sodium silicate was used as contrasting impregnation modifiers and wood samples were impregnated by a bionic “respiration” method with alternating positive and negative pressure. The weight percentage gain, density increase ratio, mechanical properties (bending and compressive strength and hardness), and water absorption rate of inorganic and organic-impregnated modified poplar wood (IIMPW and OIMPW, respectively) were compared and these properties in IIMPW were found to be higher than those of OIMPW… More
  •   Views:1370       Downloads:556        Download PDF

  • Study on the Tangential Tensile Mechanical Properties of Moso Bamboo
  • Abstract In this work, we used tensile tests to analyze the tangential failure forms of raw bamboo and determine a relationship between tangential tensile strength, elastic modulus, position, density, and moisture content. We found that the tangential mechanical properties of the culm wall were mainly dependent on the mechanical properties of the basic structure of the thin wall. Formulas for calculating the tangential tensile strength of moso bamboo and adjusting the moisture content were also determined. The tangential tensile strength and the tangential tensile modulus of elasticity (TTMOE) followed: outer > middle > inner, and diaphragm > bamboo node > culm… More
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  • A Review on Strengthening of Timber Beams Using Fiber Reinforced Polymers
  • Abstract Fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) has been used in the construction industry because of its advantages such as high strength, light weight, corrosion resistance, low density and high elasticity. This paper presents a review of bonding techniques adopted to strengthen timber beams using FRP to achieve larger spans. Different methods of bonding between FRP and timber beams have been summarized with a focus on the influencing factors and their effects as well as relevant bond-slip models proposed for fundamental understanding. Experimental investigations to evaluate the flexural performance of timber beams strengthened by FRP bars, sheets and wraps have also been critically… More
  • Graphical Abstract

    A Review on Strengthening of Timber Beams Using Fiber Reinforced Polymers
  •   Views:652       Downloads:403        Download PDF

  • Properties and Applications of Bamboo Fiber–A Current-State-of-the Art
  • Abstract Fibers are used in many forms in engineering applications–one of the most common being used as reinforcement. Due to its renewable short natural growth cycle and abundance of bamboo resources, bamboo fiber has attracted attention over other natural fibers. Bamboo fiber has a complex natural structure but offers excellent mechanical properties, which are utilized in the textile, papermaking, construction, and composites industry. However, bamboo fibers can easily absorb moisture and are prone to corrosion limiting their use in engineering applications. Therefore, a better understanding of bamboo fiber is particularly important. This paper reviews all existing research on the mechanical characterization… More
  •   Views:2424       Downloads:1264        Download PDF

  • Acoustic Emission Characteristics of Different Bamboo and Wood Materials in Bending Failure Process
  • Abstract The acoustic emission (AE) technique can perform non-destructive monitoring of the internal damage development of bamboo and wood materials. In this experiment, the mechanical properties of different bamboo and wood (bamboo scrimber, bamboo plywood and SPF (Spruce-pine-fir) dimension lumber) during four-point loading tests were compared. The AE activities caused by loadings were investigated through the single parameter analysis and K-means cluster analysis. Results showed that the bending strength of bamboo scrimber was 3.6 times that of bamboo plywood and 2.7 times that of SPF dimension lumber, respectively. Due to the high strength and toughness of bamboo, the AE signals of… More
  • Graphical Abstract

    Acoustic Emission Characteristics of Different Bamboo and Wood Materials in Bending Failure Process
  •   Views:1002       Downloads:674        Download PDF

  • A Review of Basic Mechanical Behavior of Laminated Bamboo Lumber
  • Abstract Over the past decade, the physical and mechanical performances of laminated bamboo lumber (LBL)–a bamboo-based structural material, have been extensively studied using experimental, analytical, and numerical approaches. This paper presents a review of existing knowledge in the literature about the mechanical properties of LBL. The paper involved the review of the response of LBL to different types of loading such as tension, bending, compression, and shear. Based on results of the literature reviewed, the strength of LBL parallel to grain was 90–124 MPa with MOE of 10700 MPa in tension, 29.55–72.60 MPa, and MOE of 8396–11022 MPa in compression, 63.87–128.4 MPa, and MOE of 8320–10912 MPa… More
  •   Views:1195       Downloads:1060        Download PDF