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Grover’s Algorithm in a 4-Qubit Search Space

Saasha Joshi*, Deepti Gupta
Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University Institute of Engineering and Technology, Panjab University, Chandigarh, 160014, India
* Corresponding Author: Saasha Joshi. Email:

Journal of Quantum Computing 2021, 3(4), 137-150.

Received 10 August 2021; Accepted 15 October 2021; Issue published 10 January 2022


This paper provides an introduction to a quantum search algorithm, known as Grover’s Algorithm, for unsorted search purposes. The algorithm is implemented in a search space of 4 qubits using the Python-based Qiskit SDK by IBM. While providing detailed proof, the computational complexity of the algorithm is generalized to n qubits. The implementation results obtained from the IBM QASM Simulator and IBMQ Santiago quantum backend are analyzed and compared. Finally, the paper discusses the challenges faced in implementation and real-life applications of the algorithm hitherto. Overall, the implementation and analysis depict the advantages of this quantum search algorithm over its classical counterparts.


Grover’s algorithm; unsorted search; Oracle; amplitude amplification; quantum computing

Cite This Article

. , "Grover’s algorithm in a 4-qubit search space," Journal of Quantum Computing, vol. 3, no.4, pp. 137–150, 2021.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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