Home / Journals / ENERGY / Vol.118, No.4, 2021
  • Open AccessOpen Access

    REVIEW

    Advancements in the Development of Various Types of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: A Comparative Review

    Sandhia Bai1, A. K. Amirruddin1, A. K. Pandey2,*, M. Samykano1,*, Muhammad Shakeel Ahmad3, Kamal Sharma4, V. V. Tyagi5
    Energy Engineering, Vol.118, No.4, pp. 737-759, 2021, DOI:10.32604/EE.2021.016157
    Abstract The global increase in energy demand has resulted in the depletion of non-renewable resources and caused environmental degradation. Consequently, emerging renewable technologies are a potential solution to fulfil energy demand and mitigate the effect of global warming. Low-cost solar energy harvesting technologies are most feasible technologies. Various solar cells technologies have been developed with improved overall performance and conversion efficiency. However, due to low cost and a wide range of applications, dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have been immensely focused on one of the most promising third-generation solar cells. The highest conversion efficiency of DSSC achieved after three decades of research… More >

  • Open AccessOpen Access

    REVIEW

    A Review of the Dynamic Modeling Approaches for Characterizing Fluid Flow in Naturally Fractured Reservoirs

    M. N. Tarhuni*, W. R. Sulaiman, M. Z. Jaafar, M. Milad, A. M. Alghol
    Energy Engineering, Vol.118, No.4, pp. 761-795, 2021, DOI:10.32604/EE.2021.016645
    Abstract Fluid flow in fractured media has been studied for decades and received considerable attention in the oil and gas industry because of the high productivity of naturally fractured reservoirs. Due to formation complexity and reservoir heterogeneity, characterizing fluid flow with an appropriate reservoir model presents a challenging task that differs relatively from homogeneous conventional reservoirs in many aspects of view, including geological, petrophysical, production, and economics. In most fractured reservoirs, fracture networks create complex pathways that affect hydrocarbon flow, well performance, hence reservoir characterization. A better and comprehensive understanding of the available reservoir modeling approaches is much needed to accurately… More >

  • Open AccessOpen Access

    REVIEW

    Progress on Heat Transfer in Fractures of Hot Dry Rock Enhanced Geothermal System

    Yiya Wang, Hailong Yu*, Shucheng Wu, Li Liu, Liuyang Huang, Baozhong Zhu, Yunlan Sun, Enhai Liu
    Energy Engineering, Vol.118, No.4, pp. 797-823, 2021, DOI:10.32604/EE.2021.014467
    Abstract Hot Dry Rock (HDR) is the most potential renewable geothermal energy in the future. Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) is the most effective method for the development and utilization of HDR resources, and fractures are the main flow channels and one of the most important conditions for studying heat transfer process of EGS. Therefore, the heat transfer process and the heat transfer mechanism in fractures of EGS have been the hot spots of research. Due to the particularity of the mathematical models of heat transfer, research in this field has been at an exploratory stage, and its methods are mainly experimental… More >

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    ARTICLE

    Application of Superhydrophobic Surface on Boiling Heat Transfer Characteristics of Nanofluids

    Cong Qi*, Yuxing Wang, Zi Ding, Jianglin Tu, Mengxin Zhu
    Energy Engineering, Vol.118, No.4, pp. 825-852, 2021, DOI:10.32604/EE.2021.014806
    Abstract Boiling heat transfer is a mode using the phase change of working medium to strengthen the heat exchange due to its good heat exchange capability, and it is widely used in heat exchange engineering. Nanofluids have been used in the direction of enhanced heat transfer for their superior thermophysical property. The wetting, spreading and ripple phenomena of superhydrophobic surfaces widely exist in nature and daily life. It has great application value for engineering technology. In this article, the boiling heat exchange characteristics of nanofluids on superhydrophobic surface are numerically studied. It was found that with the increase of superheating degree,… More >

  • Open AccessOpen Access

    ARTICLE

    Research on Direct Yaw Moment Control Strategy of Distributed-Drive Electric Vehicle Based on Joint Observer

    Quan Min1, Min Deng1, Zichen Zheng2,*, Shu Wang2, Xianyong Gui3, Haichuan Zhang2
    Energy Engineering, Vol.118, No.4, pp. 853-874, 2021, DOI:10.32604/EE.2021.014515
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Sustainable energy for transport)
    Abstract Combined with the characteristics of the distributed-drive electric vehicle and direct yaw moment control, a double-layer structure direct yaw moment controller is designed. The upper additional yaw moment controller is constructed based on model predictive control. Aiming at minimizing the utilization rate of tire adhesion and constrained by the working characteristics of motor system and brake system, a quadratic programming active set was designed to optimize the distribution of additional yaw moments. The road surface adhesion coefficient has a great impact on the reliability of direct yaw moment control, for which joint observer of vehicle state parameters and road surface… More >

  • Open AccessOpen Access

    REVIEW

    Performance of Desiccant-Based Cooling Systems in Hot-Humid Climates: A Review

    Maatouk Khoukhi*, Omar Al Khatib
    Energy Engineering, Vol.118, No.4, pp. 875-909, 2021, DOI:10.32604/EE.2021.015835
    Abstract This paper reviews the principle and application of the thermally activated desiccant cooling systems with their capability to perform efficiently in hot-humid climates. The paper first introduces the continuous increase of thermal comfort required in building and their relation with the consumption of conventional energy sources. The importance of desiccant cooling technology and its applications has been introduced as well. The energy and environmental issues with the conventional energy supply and the demand with the environmental problems and conditions mainly related to indoor air quality have been also discussed in the second chapter of this paper. The third part of… More >

  • Open AccessOpen Access

    ARTICLE

    Robust Variable-Pitch Control Design of PMSG Via Perturbation Observer

    Yilin Hu1, Yan Xie2, Bo Li3,*, Yiqiang Jiang1, Fu Bao1
    Energy Engineering, Vol.118, No.4, pp. 911-929, 2021, DOI:10.32604/EE.2021.014759
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Wind Energy Development and Utilization)
    Abstract Wind turbine employs pitch angle control to maintain captured power at its rated value when the wind speed is higher than rated value. This work adopts a perturbation observer based sliding-mode control (POSMC) strategy to realize robust variable-pitch control of permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG). POSMC combines system nonlinearities, parametric uncertainties, unmodelled dynamics, and time-varying external disturbances into a perturbation, which aims to estimate the perturbation via a perturbation observer without an accurate system model. Subsequently, sliding mode control (SMC) is designed to completely compensate perturbation estimation in real-time for the sake of achieving a global consistent control performance and… More >

  • Open AccessOpen Access

    ARTICLE

    Assessment of the Rural Water Supply Potential by Mechanical Wind Pumping Around the Floodplains of Lake Chad

    Dieudonné Kaoga Kidmo1,*, Bachirou Bogno1,2,3, Kodji Deli1, Michel Aillerie2,3
    Energy Engineering, Vol.118, No.4, pp. 931-945, 2021, DOI:10.32604/EE.2021.015574
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Wind Energy Development and Utilization)
    Abstract In the present work, an assessment of the rural water supply potential by mechanical wind pumping around the floodplains of Lake Chad has been considered. Inside the floodplains around Lake Chad, available surface water is largely contaminated and represents health hazards to populations. Access to underground and clean water has increasingly become rare. Moreover, clean water scarcity has led to conflict and territorial pressures, which are contributing factors to poverty in the considered area. Four localities, Baga, Baga-Sola, Makari and Nguigmi, respectively, in Nigeria, Chad, Cameroon and Niger have been selected inside the floodplains around Lake Chad, to evaluate the… More >

  • Open AccessOpen Access

    ARTICLE

    Multi-Scale Superhydrophobic Anti-Icing Coating for Wind Turbine Blades

    Jiangyong Bao1, Jianjun He1,*, Biao Chen2, Kaijun Yang1, Jun Jie2, Ruifeng Wang1, Shihao Zhang2
    Energy Engineering, Vol.118, No.4, pp. 947-959, 2021, DOI:10.32604/EE.2021.014535
    Abstract As a surface functional material, super-hydrophobic coating has great application potential in wind turbine blade anti-icing, self-cleaning and drag reduction. In this study, ZnO and SiO2 multi-scale superhydrophobic coatings with mechanical flexibility were prepared by embedding modified ZnO and SiO2 nanoparticles in PDMS. The prepared coating has a higher static water contact angle (CA is 153°) and a lower rolling angle (SA is 3.3°), showing excellent super-hydrophobicity. Because of its excellent superhydrophobic ability and micro-nano structure, the coating has good anti-icing ability. Under the conditions of −10°C and 60% relative humidity, the coating can delay the freezing time by 1511S,… More >

  • Open AccessOpen Access

    ARTICLE

    Impact of Demographic Transition on Household Energy Consumption: A Case from China

    Dequn Zhou, Xinyi Gu, Hao Ding*
    Energy Engineering, Vol.118, No.4, pp. 961-979, 2021, DOI:10.32604/EE.2021.014101
    Abstract Understanding how aging population and low fertility affect household energy consumption is important for optimizing household energy consumption and reaching effective policies. This paper studies the impacts of demographic transition on household energy consumption based on panel data of 30 provinces in China from 2005 to 2016. Child-age dependency rate (CDR) and old-age dependency rate (ODR) are selected to track the shifts in age structure. They are introduced into a STIRPAT model to measure their impacts on household energy consumption. Besides, 8 representative regions are additionally chosen and investigated to find some regional characteristics. The results show that current demographic… More >

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