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Big Data Analytics: Deep Content-Based Prediction with Sampling Perspective

Waleed Albattah, Saleh Albahli*
Department of Information Technology, College of Computer, Qassim University, Buraydah, Saudi Arabia
* Corresponding Author: Saleh Albahli. Email:

Computer Systems Science and Engineering 2023, 45(1), 531-544.

Received 06 July 2021; Accepted 07 August 2021; Issue published 16 August 2022


The world of information technology is more than ever being flooded with huge amounts of data, nearly 2.5 quintillion bytes every day. This large stream of data is called big data, and the amount is increasing each day. This research uses a technique called sampling, which selects a representative subset of the data points, manipulates and analyzes this subset to identify patterns and trends in the larger dataset being examined, and finally, creates models. Sampling uses a small proportion of the original data for analysis and model training, so that it is relatively faster while maintaining data integrity and achieving accurate results. Two deep neural networks, AlexNet and DenseNet, were used in this research to test two sampling techniques, namely sampling with replacement and reservoir sampling. The dataset used for this research was divided into three classes: acceptable, flagged as easy, and flagged as hard. The base models were trained with the whole dataset, whereas the other models were trained on 50% of the original dataset. There were four combinations of model and sampling technique. The F-measure for the AlexNet model was 0.807 while that for the DenseNet model was 0.808. Combination 1 was the AlexNet model and sampling with replacement, achieving an average F-measure of 0.8852. Combination 3 was the AlexNet model and reservoir sampling. It had an average F-measure of 0.8545. Combination 2 was the DenseNet model and sampling with replacement, achieving an average F-measure of 0.8017. Finally, combination 4 was the DenseNet model and reservoir sampling. It had an average F-measure of 0.8111. Overall, we conclude that both models trained on a sampled dataset gave equal or better results compared to the base models, which used the whole dataset.


Sampling; big data; deep learning; AlexNet; DenseNet

Cite This Article

W. Albattah and S. Albahli, "Big data analytics: deep content-based prediction with sampling perspective," Computer Systems Science and Engineering, vol. 45, no.1, pp. 531–544, 2023.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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