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Topological Evaluation of Certain Computer Networks by Contraharmonic-Quadratic Indices

Ahmed M. Alghamdi1,*, Khalid Hamid2, Muhammad Waseem Iqbal3, M. Usman Ashraf4, Abdullah Alshahrani5, Adel Alshamrani6

1 Department of Software Engineering, College of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Jeddah, Jeddah, 21493, Saudi Arabia
2 Department of Computer Science, Superior University, Lahore, 54000, Pakistan
3 Department of Software Engineering, Superior University, Lahore, 54000, Pakistan
4 Department of Computer Science, GC Women University, Sialkot, 53310, Pakistan
5 Department of Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence, College of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Jeddah, Jeddah, 21493, Saudi Arabia
6 Department of Cybersecurity, College of Computer Science and Engineering at University of Jeddah, Jeddah, 21493, Saudi Arabia

* Corresponding Author: Ahmed M. Alghamdi. Email:

Computers, Materials & Continua 2023, 74(2), 3795-3810.


In various fields, different networks are used, most of the time not of a single kind; but rather a mix of at least two networks. These kinds of networks are called bridge networks which are utilized in interconnection networks of PC, portable networks, spine of internet, networks engaged with advanced mechanics, power generation interconnection, bio-informatics and substance intensify structures. Any number that can be entirely calculated by a graph is called graph invariants. Countless mathematical graph invariants have been portrayed and utilized for connection investigation during the latest twenty years. Nevertheless, no trustworthy evaluation has been embraced to pick, how much these invariants are associated with a network graph or sub-atomic graph. In this paper, it will discuss three unmistakable varieties of bridge networks with an incredible capacity of assumption in the field of computer science, chemistry, physics, drug industry, informatics and arithmetic in setting with physical and manufactured developments and networks, since Contraharmonic-quadratic invariants (CQIs) are recently presented and have different figure qualities for different varieties of bridge graphs or networks. The study settled the geography of bridge graphs/networks of three novel sorts with two kinds of CQI and Quadratic-Contraharmonic Indices (QCIs). The deduced results can be used for the modeling of the above-mentioned networks.


Cite This Article

A. M. Alghamdi, K. Hamid, M. W. Iqbal, M. Usman Ashraf, A. Alshahrani et al., "Topological evaluation of certain computer networks by contraharmonic-quadratic indices," Computers, Materials & Continua, vol. 74, no.2, pp. 3795–3810, 2023.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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