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Hybrid Grey Wolf and Dipper Throated Optimization in Network Intrusion Detection Systems

Reem Alkanhel1,*, Doaa Sami Khafaga2, El-Sayed M. El-kenawy3, Abdelaziz A. Abdelhamid4,5, Abdelhameed Ibrahim6, Rashid Amin7, Mostafa Abotaleb8, B. M. El-den6

1 Department of Information Technology, College of Computer and Information Sciences, Princess Nourah bint Abdulrahman University, P.O. Box 84428, Riyadh, 11671, Saudi Arabia
2 Department of Computer Sciences, College of Computer and Information Sciences, Princess Nourah bint Abdulrahman University, P.O. Box 84428, Riyadh, 11671, Saudi Arabia
3 Department of Communications and Electronics, Delta Higher Institute of Engineering and Technology, Mansoura, 35111, Egypt
4 Department of Computer Science, Faculty of Computer and Information Sciences, Ain Shams University, Cairo, 11566, Egypt
5 Department of Computer Science, College of Computing and Information Technology, Shaqra University, 11961, Saudi Arabia
6 Computer Engineering and Control Systems Department, Faculty of Engineering, Mansoura University, Mansoura, 35516, Egypt
7 Department of Computer Science, University of Engineering and Technology, Taxila, Pakistan
8 Department of System Programming, South Ural State University, Chelyabinsk, 454080, Russia

* Corresponding Author: Reem Alkanhel. Email:

Computers, Materials & Continua 2023, 74(2), 2695-2709.


The Internet of Things (IoT) is a modern approach that enables connection with a wide variety of devices remotely. Due to the resource constraints and open nature of IoT nodes, the routing protocol for low power and lossy (RPL) networks may be vulnerable to several routing attacks. That’s why a network intrusion detection system (NIDS) is needed to guard against routing assaults on RPL-based IoT networks. The imbalance between the false and valid attacks in the training set degrades the performance of machine learning employed to detect network attacks. Therefore, we propose in this paper a novel approach to balance the dataset classes based on metaheuristic optimization applied to locality-sensitive hashing and synthetic minority oversampling technique (LSH-SMOTE). The proposed optimization approach is based on a new hybrid between the grey wolf and dipper throated optimization algorithms. To prove the effectiveness of the proposed approach, a set of experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance of NIDS for three cases, namely, detection without dataset balancing, detection with SMOTE balancing, and detection with the proposed optimized LSH-SOMTE balancing. Experimental results showed that the proposed approach outperforms the other approaches and could boost the detection accuracy. In addition, a statistical analysis is performed to study the significance and stability of the proposed approach. The conducted experiments include seven different types of attack cases in the RPL-NIDS17 dataset. Based on the proposed approach, the achieved accuracy is (98.1%), sensitivity is (97.8%), and specificity is (98.8%).


Cite This Article

R. Alkanhel, D. S. Khafaga, E. M. El-kenawy, A. A. Abdelhamid, A. Ibrahim et al., "Hybrid grey wolf and dipper throated optimization in network intrusion detection systems," Computers, Materials & Continua, vol. 74, no.2, pp. 2695–2709, 2023.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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