Vol.71, No.3, 2022, pp.5271-5291, doi:10.32604/cmc.2022.020833
Lightweight Direct Acyclic Graph Blockchain for Enhancing Resource-Constrained IoT Environment
  • Salaheddine Kably1,2,*, Mounir Arioua1, Nabih Alaoui2
1 Laboratory of Information and Communication Technologies, National School of Applied Abdelmalek Saadi University, Tanger, Morocco
2 Ecole Supérieure d'informatique et du Numérique, TICLab Université Internationale de Rabat Sala, El Jadida, Morocco
* Corresponding Author: Salaheddine Kably. Email:
(This article belongs to this Special Issue: Security, Privacy, and Trust in Industrial IoTs)
Received 10 June 2021; Accepted 08 November 2021; Issue published 14 January 2022
Blockchain technology is regarded as the emergent security solution for many applications related to the Internet of Things (IoT). In concept, blockchain has a linear structure that grows with the number of transactions entered. This growth in size is the main obstacle to the blockchain, which makes it unsuitable for resource-constrained IoT environments. Moreover, conventional consensus algorithms such as PoW, PoS are very computationally heavy. This paper solves these problems by introducing a new lightweight blockchain structure and lightweight consensus algorithm. The Multi-Zone Direct Acyclic Graph (DAG) Blockchain (Multizone-DAG-Blockchain) framework is proposed for the fog-based IoT environment. In this context, fog computing technology is integrated with the IoT to offload IoT tasks to the fog nodes, thus preserving the energy consumption of the IoT devices. Both IoT and fog nodes are initially authenticated using a non-cloneable physical function- based validation mechanism (DPUF-VM) in which multiple authentication certificates are verified in the blockchain. Each transaction is stored in a hash function in the blockchain using the lightweight CubeHash algorithm and signed by the Four-Q- Curve algorithm. In the cloud, sensitive data is stored as ciphertext. Fog nodes provide data security to avoid the energy consumption and complexity of IoT nodes. The fog node first performs a redundancy analysis using the Jaccard Similarity (JS) measure and sensitivity analysis using the Neutrosophic Neural Intelligent Network (N2IN) algorithm. A lightweight proof-of-authentication (PoAh) algorithm is presented and executed by the optimal consensus node selected by the bi- objective spiral optimization (BoSo) algorithm for transaction validation. The proposed work is modeled in Network Simulator 3.26 (ns-3.26), and the performance is evaluated in terms of energy consumption, storage cost, response time, and throughput.
Multi zone DAG blockchain; dynamic PUF; lightweight PoAh consensus; BoSo node selection; four-q-curve encryption; IoT environment
Cite This Article
Kably, S., Arioua, M., Alaoui, N. (2022). Lightweight Direct Acyclic Graph Blockchain for Enhancing Resource-Constrained IoT Environment. CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, 71(3), 5271–5291.
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