Home / Journals / CMC / Vol.71, No.2, 2022
Table of Content
  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Hybrid Renewable Energy Resources Management for Optimal Energy Operation in Nano-Grid

    Faiza Qayyum1, Faisal Jamil1, Shabir Ahmad2, Do-Hyeun Kim1,*
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 2091-2105, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.019898
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Advancements in Lightweight AI for Constrained Internet of Things Devices for Smart Cities)
    Abstract Renewable energy resources are deemed a potential energy production source due to their cost efficiency and harmless reaction to the environment, unlike non-renewable energy resources. However, they often fail to meet energy requirements in unfavorable weather conditions. The concept of Hybrid renewable energy resources addresses this issue by integrating both renewable and non-renewable energy resources to meet the required energy load. In this paper, an intelligent cost optimization algorithm is proposed to maximize the use of renewable energy resources and minimum utilization of non-renewable energy resources to meet the energy requirement for a nanogrid infrastructure. An actual data set comprising… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    HELP-WSN-A Novel Adaptive Multi-Tier Hybrid Intelligent Framework for QoS Aware WSN-IoT Networks

    J. Sampathkumar*, N. Malmurugan
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 2107-2123, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.019983
    Abstract Wireless Sensor Network is considered as the intermediate layer in the paradigm of Internet of things (IoT) and its effectiveness depends on the mode of deployment without sacrificing the performance and energy efficiency. WSN provides ubiquitous access to location, the status of different entities of the environment and data acquisition for long term IoT monitoring. Achieving the high performance of the WSN-IoT network remains to be a real challenge since the deployment of these networks in the large area consumes more power which in turn degrades the performance of the networks. So, developing the robust and QoS (quality of services)… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Plant Disease Diagnosis and Image Classification Using Deep Learning

    Rahul Sharma1, Amar Singh1, Kavita2, N. Z. Jhanjhi3, Mehedi Masud4, Emad Sami Jaha5, Sahil Verma2,*
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 2125-2140, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.020017
    Abstract Indian agriculture is striving to achieve sustainable intensification, the system aiming to increase agricultural yield per unit area without harming natural resources and the ecosystem. Modern farming employs technology to improve productivity. Early and accurate analysis and diagnosis of plant disease is very helpful in reducing plant diseases and improving plant health and food crop productivity. Plant disease experts are not available in remote areas thus there is a requirement of automatic low-cost, approachable and reliable solutions to identify the plant diseases without the laboratory inspection and expert's opinion. Deep learning-based computer vision techniques like Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) and… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Structure Preserving Algorithm for Fractional Order Mathematical Model of COVID-19

    Zafar Iqbal1,2, Muhammad Aziz-ur Rehman1, Nauman Ahmed1,2, Ali Raza3,4, Muhammad Rafiq5, Ilyas Khan6,*, Kottakkaran Sooppy Nisar7
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 2141-2157, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.013906
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Mathematical aspects of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): Analysis and Control)
    Abstract In this article, a brief biological structure and some basic properties of COVID-19 are described. A classical integer order model is modified and converted into a fractional order model with as order of the fractional derivative. Moreover, a valued structure preserving the numerical design, coined as Grunwald–Letnikov non-standard finite difference scheme, is developed for the fractional COVID-19 model. Taking into account the importance of the positivity and boundedness of the state variables, some productive results have been proved to ensure these essential features. Stability of the model at a corona free and a corona existing equilibrium points is investigated on… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Cost Estimate and Input Energy of Floor Systems in Low Seismic Regions

    Sayed Mahmoud*, Alaa Salman
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 2159-2173, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.022357
    Abstract Reinforced concrete (RC) as a material is most commonly used for buildings construction. Several floor systems are available following the structural and architectural requirements. The current research study provides cost and input energy comparisons of RC office buildings of different floor systems. Conventional solid, ribbed, flat plate and flat slab systems are considered in the study. Building models in three-dimensional using extended three-dimensional analysis of building systems (ETABS) and in two-dimensional using slab analysis by the finite element (SAFE) are developed for analysis purposes. Analysis and design using both software packages and manual calculations are employed to obtain the optimum… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Numerical Analysis of Laterally Loaded Long Piles in Cohesionless Soil

    Ayman Abd-Elhamed1,2,*, Mohamed Fathy3, Khaled M. Abdelgaber1
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 2175-2190, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.021899
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning Algorithms in Real-World Applications and Theories)
    Abstract The capability of piles to withstand horizontal loads is a major design issue. The current research work aims to investigate numerically the responses of laterally loaded piles at working load employing the concept of a beam-on-Winkler-foundation model. The governing differential equation for a laterally loaded pile on elastic subgrade is derived. Based on Legendre-Galerkin method and Runge-Kutta formulas of order four and five, the flexural equation of long piles embedded in homogeneous sandy soils with modulus of subgrade reaction linearly variable with depth is solved for both free- and fixed-headed piles. Mathematica, as one of the world's leading computational software,… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Noisy ECG Signal Data Transformation to Augment Classification Accuracy

    Iqra Afzal1, Fiaz Majeed1, Muhammad Usman Ali2, Shahzada Khurram3, Akber Abid Gardezi4, Shafiq Ahmad5, Saad Aladyan5, Almetwally M. Mostafa6, Muhammad Shafiq7,*
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 2191-2207, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.022711
    Abstract In this era of electronic health, healthcare data is very important because it contains information about human survival. In addition, the Internet of Things (IoT) revolution has redefined modern healthcare systems and management by providing continuous monitoring. In this case, the data related to the heart is more important and requires proper analysis. For the analysis of heart data, Electrocardiogram (ECG) is used. In this work, machine learning techniques, such as adaptive boosting (AdaBoost) is used for detecting normal sinus rhythm, atrial fibrillation (AF), and noise in ECG signals to improve the classification accuracy. The proposed model uses ECG signals… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Deep Image Restoration Model: A Defense Method Against Adversarial Attacks

    Kazim Ali1,*, Adnan N. Qureshi1, Ahmad Alauddin Bin Arifin2, Muhammad Shahid Bhatti3, Abid Sohail3, Rohail Hassan4
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 2209-2224, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.020111
    Abstract These days, deep learning and computer vision are much-growing fields in this modern world of information technology. Deep learning algorithms and computer vision have achieved great success in different applications like image classification, speech recognition, self-driving vehicles, disease diagnostics, and many more. Despite success in various applications, it is found that these learning algorithms face severe threats due to adversarial attacks. Adversarial examples are inputs like images in the computer vision field, which are intentionally slightly changed or perturbed. These changes are humanly imperceptible. But are misclassified by a model with high probability and severely affects the performance or prediction.… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Deep Reinforcement Learning for Addressing Disruptions in Traffic Light Control

    Faizan Rasheed1, Kok-Lim Alvin Yau2, Rafidah Md Noor3, Yung-Wey Chong4,*
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 2225-2247, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.022952
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Artificial Intelligence Enabled Intelligent Transportation Systems)
    Abstract This paper investigates the use of multi-agent deep Q-network (MADQN) to address the curse of dimensionality issue occurred in the traditional multi-agent reinforcement learning (MARL) approach. The proposed MADQN is applied to traffic light controllers at multiple intersections with busy traffic and traffic disruptions, particularly rainfall. MADQN is based on deep Q-network (DQN), which is an integration of the traditional reinforcement learning (RL) and the newly emerging deep learning (DL) approaches. MADQN enables traffic light controllers to learn, exchange knowledge with neighboring agents, and select optimal joint actions in a collaborative manner. A case study based on a real traffic… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    An Improved DeepNN with Feature Ranking for Covid-19 Detection

    Noha E. El-Attar1,*, Sahar F. Sabbeh1,2, Heba Fasihuddin2, Wael A. Awad3
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 2249-2269, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.022673
    Abstract The outbreak of Covid-19 has taken the lives of many patients so far. The symptoms of COVID-19 include muscle pains, loss of taste and smell, coughs, fever, and sore throat, which can lead to severe cases of breathing difficulties, organ failure, and death. Thus, the early detection of the virus is very crucial. COVID-19 can be detected using clinical tests, making us need to know the most important symptoms/features that can enhance the decision process. In this work, we propose a modified multilayer perceptron (MLP) with feature selection (MLPFS) to predict the positive COVID-19 cases based on symptoms and features… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Inkjet Printed Metamaterial Loaded Antenna for WLAN/WiMAX Applications

    Farhad Bin Ashraf1, Touhidul Alam2,*, Md Tarikul Islam3, Mandeep Jit Singh3, Norbahiah Binti Misran3, Mohammad Tariqul Islam3
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 2271-2284, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.021751
    Abstract In this paper, the design and performance analysis of an Inkjet-printed metamaterial loaded monopole antenna is presented for wireless local area network (WLAN) and worldwide interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX) applications. The proposed metamaterial structure consists of two layers, one is rectangular tuning fork-shaped antenna, and another layer is an inkjet-printed metamaterial superstate. The metamaterial layer is designed using four split-ring resonators (SRR) with an H-shaped inner structure to achieve negative-index metamaterial properties. The metamaterial structure is fabricated on low-cost photo paper substrate material using a conductive ink-based inkjet printing technique, which achieved dual negative refractive index bands of 2.25–4.25… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Optimizing Steering Angle Predictive Convolutional Neural Network for Autonomous Car

    Hajira Saleem1, Faisal Riaz1, Asadullah Shaikh2, Khairan Rajab2,3, Adel Rajab2,*, Muhammad Akram2, Mana Saleh Al Reshan2
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 2285-2302, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.022726
    Abstract Deep learning techniques, particularly convolutional neural networks (CNNs), have exhibited remarkable performance in solving vision-related problems, especially in unpredictable, dynamic, and challenging environments. In autonomous vehicles, imitation-learning-based steering angle prediction is viable due to the visual imagery comprehension of CNNs. In this regard, globally, researchers are currently focusing on the architectural design and optimization of the hyperparameters of CNNs to achieve the best results. Literature has proven the superiority of metaheuristic algorithms over the manual-tuning of CNNs. However, to the best of our knowledge, these techniques are yet to be applied to address the problem of imitation-learning-based steering angle prediction.… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Forecasting of Appliances House in a Low-Energy Depend on Grey Wolf Optimizer

    Hatim G. Zaini*
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 2303-2314, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.021998
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning Algorithms in Real-World Applications and Theories)
    Abstract This paper gives and analyses data-driven prediction models for the energy usage of appliances. Data utilized include readings of temperature and humidity sensors from a wireless network. The building envelope is meant to minimize energy demand or the energy required to power the house independent of the appliance and mechanical system efficiency. Approximating a mapping function between the input variables and the continuous output variable is the work of regression. The paper discusses the forecasting framework FOPF (Feature Optimization Prediction Framework), which includes feature selection optimization: by removing non-predictive parameters to choose the best-selected feature hybrid optimization technique has been… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    ICMPTend: Internet Control Message Protocol Covert Tunnel Attack Intent Detector

    Tengfei Tu1,2, Wei Yin3, Hua Zhang1,2,*, Xingyu Zeng1, Xiaoxiang Deng1, Yuchen Zhou1, Xu Liu4
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 2315-2331, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.022540
    Abstract The Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) covert tunnel refers to a network attack that encapsulates malicious data in the data part of the ICMP protocol for transmission. Its concealment is stronger and it is not easy to be discovered. Most detection methods are detecting the existence of channels instead of clarifying specific attack intentions. In this paper, we propose an ICMP covert tunnel attack intent detection framework ICMPTend, which includes five steps: data collection, feature dictionary construction, data preprocessing, model construction, and attack intent prediction. ICMPTend can detect a variety of attack intentions, such as shell attacks, sensitive directory access,… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Exploring the Approaches to Data Flow Computing

    Mohammad B. Khan1, Abdul R. Khan2,*, Hasan Alkahtani2
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 2333-2346, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.020623
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Pervasive Computing and Communication: Challenges, Technologies & Opportunities)
    Abstract Architectures based on the data flow computing model provide an alternative to the conventional Von-Neumann architecture that are widely used for general purpose computing. Processors based on the data flow architecture employ fine-grain data-driven parallelism. These architectures have the potential to exploit the inherent parallelism in compute intensive applications like signal processing, image and video processing and so on and can thus achieve faster throughputs and higher power efficiency. In this paper, several data flow computing architectures are explored, and their main architectural features are studied. Furthermore, a classification of the processors is presented based on whether they employ either… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Big Data Analytics Using Swarm-Based Long Short-Term Memory for Temperature Forecasting

    Malini M. Patil1,*, P. M. Rekha1, Arun Solanki2, Anand Nayyar3,4, Basit Qureshi5
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 2347-2361, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.021447
    Abstract In the past few decades, climatic changes led by environmental pollution, the emittance of greenhouse gases, and the emergence of brown energy utilization have led to global warming. Global warming increases the Earth's temperature, thereby causing severe effects on human and environmental conditions and threatening the livelihoods of millions of people. Global warming issues are the increase in global temperatures that lead to heat strokes and high-temperature-related diseases during the summer, causing the untimely death of thousands of people. To forecast weather conditions, researchers have utilized machine learning algorithms, such as autoregressive integrated moving average, ensemble learning, and long short-term… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    CDLSTM: A Novel Model for Climate Change Forecasting

    Mohd Anul Haq*
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 2363-2381, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.023059
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning Algorithms in Real-World Applications and Theories)
    Abstract Water received in rainfall is a crucial natural resource for agriculture, the hydrological cycle, and municipal purposes. The changing rainfall pattern is an essential aspect of assessing the impact of climate change on water resources planning and management. Climate change affected the entire world, specifically India’s fragile Himalayan mountain region, which has high significance due to being a climatic indicator. The water coming from Himalayan rivers is essential for 1.4 billion people living downstream. Earlier studies either modeled temperature or rainfall for the Himalayan area; however, the combined influence of both in a long-term analysis was not performed utilizing Deep… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Metamaterial-Based Compact Antenna with Defected Ground Structure for 5G and Beyond

    Md. Mushfiqur Rahman1,*, Md. Shabiul Islam1, Mohammad Tariqul Islam2, Samir Salem Al-Bawri3, Wong Hin Yong1
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 2383-2399, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.022150
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Advances in 5G Antenna Designs and Systems)
    Abstract In this paper, a unit cell of a single-negative metamaterial structure loaded with a meander line and defected ground structure (DGS) is investigated as the principle radiating element of an antenna. The unit cell antenna causes even or odd mode resonances similar to the unit cell structure depending on the orientation of the microstrip feed used to excite the unit cell. However, the orientation which gives low-frequency resonance is considered here. The unit cell antenna is then loaded with a meander line which is parallel to the split bearing side and connects the other two sides orthogonal to the split… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    PLC Protection System Based on Verification Separation

    Xiaojun Pan1, Haiying Li2, Xiaoyi Li1, Li Xu1, Yanbin Sun1,*
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 2401-2417, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.021020
    Abstract Supervisory control and data acquisition systems (SCADAs) play an important role in supervising and controlling industrial production with the help of programmable logic controllers (PLCs) in industrial control systems (ICSs). A PLC receives the control information or program from a SCADA to control the production equipment and feeds the production data back to the SCADA. Once a SCADA is controlled by an attacker, it may threaten the safety of industrial production. The lack of security protection, such as identity authentication and encryption for industrial control protocols, increases the potential security risks. In this paper, we propose a PLC protection system… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Ensemble Learning Based Collaborative Filtering with Instance Selection and Enhanced Clustering

    G. Parthasarathy1,*, S. Sathiya Devi2
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 2419-2434, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.019805
    Abstract Recommender system is a tool to suggest items to the users from the extensive history of the user's feedback. Though, it is an emerging research area concerning academics and industries, where it suffers from sparsity, scalability, and cold start problems. This paper addresses sparsity, and scalability problems of model-based collaborative recommender system based on ensemble learning approach and enhanced clustering algorithm for movie recommendations. In this paper, an effective movie recommendation system is proposed by Classification and Regression Tree (CART) algorithm, enhanced Balanced Iterative Reducing and Clustering using Hierarchies (BIRCH) algorithm and truncation method. In this research paper, a new… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Feature Selection for Cluster Analysis in Spectroscopy

    Simon Crase1,2, Benjamin Hall2, Suresh N. Thennadil3,*
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 2435-2458, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.022414
    Abstract Cluster analysis in spectroscopy presents some unique challenges due to the specific data characteristics in spectroscopy, namely, high dimensionality and small sample size. In order to improve cluster analysis outcomes, feature selection can be used to remove redundant or irrelevant features and reduce the dimensionality. However, for cluster analysis, this must be done in an unsupervised manner without the benefit of data labels. This paper presents a novel feature selection approach for cluster analysis, utilizing clusterability metrics to remove features that least contribute to a dataset's tendency to cluster. Two versions are presented and evaluated: The Hopkins clusterability filter which… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Curvelet Transform Based on Edge Preserving Filter for Retinal Blood Vessel Segmentation

    Sonali Dash1, Sahil Verma2,*, Kavita2, N. Z. Jhanjhi3, Mehedi Masud4, Mohammed Baz5
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 2459-2476, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.020904
    Abstract Segmentation of vessel in retinal fundus images is a primary step for the clinical identification for specific eye diseases. Effective diagnosis of vascular pathologies from angiographic images is thus a vital aspect and generally depends on segmentation of vascular structure. Although various approaches for retinal vessel segmentation are extensively utilized, however, the responses are lower at vessel's edges. The curvelet transform signifies edges better than wavelets, and hence convenient for multiscale edge enhancement. The bilateral filter is a nonlinear filter that is capable of providing effective smoothing while preserving strong edges. Fast bilateral filter is an advanced version of bilateral… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Skin Lesion Segmentation and Classification Using Conventional and Deep Learning Based Framework

    Amina Bibi1, Muhamamd Attique Khan1, Muhammad Younus Javed1, Usman Tariq2, Byeong-Gwon Kang3, Yunyoung Nam3,*, Reham R. Mostafa4, Rasha H. Sakr5
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 2477-2495, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.018917
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Recent Advances in Deep Learning for Medical Image Analysis)
    Abstract Background: In medical image analysis, the diagnosis of skin lesions remains a challenging task. Skin lesion is a common type of skin cancer that exists worldwide. Dermoscopy is one of the latest technologies used for the diagnosis of skin cancer. Challenges: Many computerized methods have been introduced in the literature to classify skin cancers. However, challenges remain such as imbalanced datasets, low contrast lesions, and the extraction of irrelevant or redundant features. Proposed Work: In this study, a new technique is proposed based on the conventional and deep learning framework. The proposed framework consists of two major tasks: lesion segmentation… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Smart-Fragile Authentication Scheme for Robust Detecting of Tampering Attacks on English Text

    Mohammad Alamgeer1, Fahd N. Al-Wesabi2,3,*, Huda G. Iskandar3,4, Imran Khan5, Nadhem Nemri6, Mohammad Medani6, Mohammed Abdullah Al-Hagery7, Ali Mohammed Al-Sharafi3,8
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 2497-2513, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.018591
    Abstract Content authentication, integrity verification, and tampering detection of digital content exchanged via the internet have been used to address a major concern in information and communication technology. In this paper, a text zero-watermarking approach known as Smart-Fragile Approach based on Soft Computing and Digital Watermarking (SFASCDW) is proposed for content authentication and tampering detection of English text. A first-level order of alphanumeric mechanism, based on hidden Markov model, is integrated with digital zero-watermarking techniques to improve the watermark robustness of the proposed approach. The researcher uses the first-level order and alphanumeric mechanism of Markov model as a soft computing technique… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Hyper Elliptic Curve Based Certificateless Signcryption Scheme for Secure IIoT Communications

    Usman Ali1,2, Mohd Yamani Idna Idris1,3,*, Jaroslav Frnda4, Mohamad Nizam Bin Ayub1, Roobaea Alroobaea5, Fahad Almansour6, Nura Modi Shagari1, Insaf Ullah7, Ihsan Ali1
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 2515-2532, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.019800
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Next - Generation Secure Solutions for Wireless Communications, IoT and SDNs)
    Abstract Industrial internet of things (IIoT) is the usage of internet of things (IoT) devices and applications for the purpose of sensing, processing and communicating real-time events in the industrial system to reduce the unnecessary operational cost and enhance manufacturing and other industrial-related processes to attain more profits. However, such IoT based smart industries need internet connectivity and interoperability which makes them susceptible to numerous cyber-attacks due to the scarcity of computational resources of IoT devices and communication over insecure wireless channels. Therefore, this necessitates the design of an efficient security mechanism for IIoT environment. In this paper, we propose a… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Low Profile UHF Antenna Design for Low Earth-Observation CubeSats

    Md. Amanath Ullah1, Touhidul Alam2,3, Ali F. Almutairi4,*, Mohammad Tariqul Islam5
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 2533-2542, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.021852
    Abstract This paper reveals a new design of UHF CubeSat antenna based on a modified Planar Inverted F Antenna (PIFA) for CubeSat communication. The design utilizes a CubeSat face as the ground plane. There is a gap of 5 mm beneath the radiating element that facilitates the design providing with space for solar panels. The prototype is fabricated using Aluminum metal sheet and measured. The antenna achieved resonance at 419 MHz. Response of the antenna has been investigated after placing a solar panel. Lossy properties of solar panels made the resonance shift about 20 MHz. This design addresses the frequency shifting… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Design of Automated Opinion Mining Model Using Optimized Fuzzy Neural Network

    Ala’ A. Eshmawi1, Hesham Alhumyani2, Sayed Abdel Khalek3, Rashid A. Saeed2, Mahmoud Ragab4, Romany F. Mansour5,*
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 2543-2557, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.021833
    Abstract Sentiment analysis or Opinion Mining (OM) has gained significant interest among research communities and entrepreneurs in the recent years. Likewise, Machine Learning (ML) approaches is one of the interesting research domains that are highly helpful and are increasingly applied in several business domains. In this background, the current research paper focuses on the design of automated opinion mining model using Deer Hunting Optimization Algorithm (DHOA) with Fuzzy Neural Network (FNN) abbreviated as DHOA-FNN model. The proposed DHOA-FNN technique involves four different stages namely, preprocessing, feature extraction, classification, and parameter tuning. In addition to the above, the proposed DHOA-FNN model has… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Automated Patient Discomfort Detection Using Deep Learning

    Imran Ahmed1, Iqbal Khan1, Misbah Ahmad1, Awais Adnan1, Hanan Aljuaid2,*
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 2559-2577, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.021259
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Security and Privacy issues for various Emerging Technologies and Future Trends)
    Abstract The Internet of Things (IoT) has been transformed almost all fields of life, but its impact on the healthcare sector has been notable. Various IoT-based sensors are used in the healthcare sector and offer quality and safe care to patients. This work presents a deep learning-based automated patient discomfort detection system in which patients’ discomfort is non-invasively detected. To do this, the overhead view patients’ data set has been recorded. For testing and evaluation purposes, we investigate the power of deep learning by choosing a Convolution Neural Network (CNN) based model. The model uses confidence maps and detects 18 different… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    IoMT-Enabled Fusion-Based Model to Predict Posture for Smart Healthcare Systems

    Taher M. Ghazal1,2,*, Mohammad Kamrul Hasan1, Siti Norul Huda Abdullah1, Khairul Azmi Abubakkar1, Mohammed A. M. Afifi2
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 2579-2597, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.019706
    Abstract Smart healthcare applications depend on data from wearable sensors (WSs) mounted on a patient’s body for frequent monitoring information. Healthcare systems depend on multi-level data for detecting illnesses and consequently delivering correct diagnostic measures. The collection of WS data and integration of that data for diagnostic purposes is a difficult task. This paper proposes an Errorless Data Fusion (EDF) approach to increase posture recognition accuracy. The research is based on a case study in a health organization. With the rise in smart healthcare systems, WS data fusion necessitates careful attention to provide sensitive analysis of the recognized illness. As a… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Blockchain Based Secured Load Balanced Task Scheduling Approach for Fitness Service

    Muhammad Ibrahim1, Faisal Jamil2, YunJung Lee1, DoHyeun Kim2,*
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 2599-2616, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.019534
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Advancements in Lightweight AI for Constrained Internet of Things Devices for Smart Cities)
    Abstract In recent times, the evolution of blockchain technology has got huge attention from the research community due to its versatile applications and unique security features. The IoT has shown wide adoption in various applications including smart cities, healthcare, trade, business, etc. Among these applications, fitness applications have been widely considered for smart fitness systems. The users of the fitness system are increasing at a high rate thus the gym providers are constantly extending the fitness facilities. Thus, scheduling such a huge number of requests for fitness exercise is a big challenge. Secondly, the user fitness data is critical thus securing… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Encoder-Decoder Based LSTM Model to Advance User QoE in 360-Degree Video

    Muhammad Usman Younus1,*, Rabia Shafi2, Ammar Rafiq3, Muhammad Rizwan Anjum4, Sharjeel Afridi5, Abdul Aleem Jamali6, Zulfiqar Ali Arain7
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 2617-2631, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.022236
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Application of Machine-Learning in Computer Vision)
    Abstract The development of multimedia content has resulted in a massive increase in network traffic for video streaming. It demands such types of solutions that can be addressed to obtain the user's Quality-of-Experience (QoE). 360-degree videos have already taken up the user's behavior by storm. However, the users only focus on the part of 360-degree videos, known as a viewport. Despite the immense hype, 360-degree videos convey a loathsome side effect about viewport prediction, making viewers feel uncomfortable because user viewport needs to be pre-fetched in advance. Ideally, we can minimize the bandwidth consumption if we know what the user motion… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    A Zero-Watermark Scheme Based on Quaternion Generalized Fourier Descriptor for Multiple Images

    Baowei Wang1,2,3,*, Weishen Wang1, Peng Zhao1, Naixue Xiong4
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 2633-2652, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.022291
    Abstract Most of the existing zero-watermark schemes for medical images are only appropriate for a single grayscale image. When they protect a large number of medical images, repeating operations will cause a significant amount of time and storage costs. Hence, this paper proposes an efficient zero-watermark scheme for multiple color medical images based on quaternion generalized Fourier descriptor (QGFD). Firstly, QGFD is utilized to compute the feature invariants of each color image, then the representative features of each image are selected, stacked, and reshaped to generate a feature matrix, which is then binarized to get a binary feature image. Copyright information… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Performance Evaluation of Topological Infrastructure in Internet-of-Things-Enabled Serious Games

    Shabir Ahmad, Faheem Khan, Taeg Keun Whangbo*
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 2653-2666, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.022821
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Machine Learning Empowered Secure Computing for Intelligent Systems)
    Abstract Serious games have recently enticed many researchers due to their wide range of capabilities. A serious game is a mean of gaming for a serious job such as healthcare, education, and entertainment purposes. With the advancement in the Internet of Things, new research directions are paving the way in serious games. However, the internet connectivity of players in Internet-of-things-enabled serious games is a matter of concern and has been worth investigating. Different studies on topologies, frameworks, and architecture of communication technologies are conducted to integrate them with serious games on machine and network levels. However, the Internet of things, whose… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    A Novel Workload-Aware and Optimized Write Cycles in NVRAM

    J. P. Shri Tharanyaa1,*, D. Sharmila2, R. Saravana Kumar3
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 2667-2681, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.019889
    Abstract With the emergence of the Internet of things (IoT), embedded systems have now changed its dimensionality and it is applied in various domains such as healthcare, home automation and mainly Industry 4.0. These Embedded IoT devices are mostly battery-driven. It has been analyzed that usage of Dynamic Random-Access Memory (DRAM) centered core memory is considered the most significant source of high energy utility in Embedded IoT devices. For achieving the low power consumption in these devices, Non-volatile memory (NVM) devices such as Parameter Random Access Memory (PRAM) and Spin-Transfer Torque Magnetic Random-Access Memory (STT-RAM) are becoming popular among main memory… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Edge Metric Dimension of Honeycomb and Hexagonal Networks for IoT

    Sohail Abbas1, Zahid Raza2, Nida Siddiqui2, Faheem Khan3, Taegkeun Whangbo3,*
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 2683-2695, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.023003
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Advancements in Lightweight AI for Constrained Internet of Things Devices for Smart Cities)
    Abstract Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is considered to be one of the fundamental technologies employed in the Internet of things (IoT); hence, enabling diverse applications for carrying out real-time observations. Robot navigation in such networks was the main motivation for the introduction of the concept of landmarks. A robot can identify its own location by sending signals to obtain the distances between itself and the landmarks. Considering networks to be a type of graph, this concept was redefined as metric dimension of a graph which is the minimum number of nodes needed to identify all the nodes of the graph. This… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Novel Algorithm for Mobile Robot Path Planning in Constrained Environment

    Aisha Muhammad1,5, Mohammed A. H. Ali2,*, Sherzod Turaev3, Ibrahim Haruna Shanono4,5, Fadhl Hujainah6, Mohd Nashrul Mohd Zubir2, Muhammad Khairi Faiz2, Erma Rahayu Mohd Faizal1, Rawad Abdulghafor8
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 2697-2719, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.020873
    Abstract This paper presents a development of a novel path planning algorithm, called Generalized Laser simulator (GLS), for solving the mobile robot path planning problem in a two-dimensional map with the presence of constraints. This approach gives the possibility to find the path for a wheel mobile robot considering some constraints during the robot movement in both known and unknown environments. The feasible path is determined between the start and goal positions by generating wave of points in all direction towards the goal point with adhering to constraints. In simulation, the proposed method has been tested in several working environments with… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    New 5G Kaiser-Based Windowing to Reduce Out of Band Emission

    Ahmed Hammoodi1, Lukman Audah1 , Laith Al-Jobouri2,*, Mazin Abed Mohammed3, Mustafa S. Aljumaily4
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 2721-2738, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.020091
    Abstract OFDM based waveforms are considered as the main part of the latest cellular communications standard (namely 5G). Many inherited problems from the OFDM-Based LTE are still under investigation. Getting rid of the out of band emissions is one of these problems. Ensuring low out of band emission (OOBE) is deemed as one of the most critical challenges to support development of future technologies such as 6G and beyond. Universal Filtered Multi Carrier (UFMC) has been considered as one of the candidate waveforms for the 5G communications due to its robustness against Inter Carrier Interference (ICI) and the Inter Symbol Interference… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Efficient Joint Key Authentication Model in E-Healthcare

    Muhammad Sajjad1, Tauqeer Safdar Malik1, Shahzada Khurram2, Akber Abid Gardezi3, Fawaz Alassery4, Habib Hamam5, Omar Cheikhrouhou6, Muhammad Shafiq7,*
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 2739-2753, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.022706
    Abstract Many patients have begun to use mobile applications to handle different health needs because they can better access high-speed Internet and smartphones. These devices and mobile applications are now increasingly used and integrated through the medical Internet of Things (mIoT). mIoT is an important part of the digital transformation of healthcare, because it can introduce new business models and allow efficiency improvements, cost control and improve patient experience. In the mIoT system, when migrating from traditional medical services to electronic medical services, patient protection and privacy are the priorities of each stakeholder. Therefore, it is recommended to use different user… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Evaluating the Efficiency of CBAM-Resnet Using Malaysian Sign Language

    Rehman Ullah Khan1,*, Woei Sheng Wong1, Insaf Ullah2, Fahad Algarni3, Muhammad Inam Ul Haq4, Mohamad Hardyman bin Barawi1, Muhammad Asghar Khan2
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 2755-2772, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.022471
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Soft Computing and Machine Learning for Predictive Data Analytics)
    Abstract The deaf-mutes population is constantly feeling helpless when others do not understand them and vice versa. To fill this gap, this study implements a CNN-based neural network, Convolutional Based Attention Module (CBAM), to recognise Malaysian Sign Language (MSL) in videos recognition. This study has created 2071 videos for 19 dynamic signs. Two different experiments were conducted for dynamic signs, using CBAM-3DResNet implementing ‘Within Blocks’ and ‘Before Classifier’ methods. Various metrics such as the accuracy, loss, precision, recall, F1-score, confusion matrix, and training time were recorded to evaluate the models’ efficiency. Results showed that CBAM-ResNet models had good performances in videos… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Optical Flow with Learning Feature for Deformable Medical Image Registration

    Jinrong Hu1, Lujin Li1, Ying Fu1, Maoyang Zou1, Jiliu Zhou1, Shanhui Sun2,*
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 2773-2788, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.017916
    Abstract Deformable medical image registration plays a vital role in medical image applications, such as placing different temporal images at the same time point or different modality images into the same coordinate system. Various strategies have been developed to satisfy the increasing needs of deformable medical image registration. One popular registration method is estimating the displacement field by computing the optical flow between two images. The motion field (flow field) is computed based on either gray-value or handcrafted descriptors such as the scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT). These methods assume that illumination is constant between images. However, medical images may not always… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Chaotic Whale Optimized Fractional Order PID Controller Design for Desalination Process

    F. Kavin1,*, R. Senthilkumar2
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 2789-2806, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.021577
    Abstract The main aim of this work is to design a suitable Fractional Order Proportionl Integral Derivative (FOPID) controller with Chaotic Whale Optimization Algorithm (CWOA) for a RO desalination system. Continuous research on Reverse Osmosis (RO) desalination plants is a promising technique for satisfaction with sustainable and efficient RO plants. This work implements CWOA based FOPID for the simulation of reverse osmosis (RO) desalination process for both servo and regulatory problems. Mathematical modeling is a vital constituent of designing advanced and developed engineering processes, which helps to gain a deep study of processes to predict the performance, more efficiently. Numerous approaches… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Intelligent Transmission Control for Efficient Operations in SDN

    Reem Alkanhel1, Abid Ali2,3, Faisal Jamil4, Muzammil Nawaz2, Faisal Mehmood5, Ammar Muthanna6,7,*
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 2807-2825, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.019766
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Artificial Intelligence Convergence Networks Leveraging Software-Defined Networking)
    Abstract Although the Software-Defined Network (SDN) is a well-controlled and efficient network but the complexity of open flow switches in SDN causes multiple issues. Many solutions have been proposed so far for the prevention of errors and mistakes in it but yet, there is still no smooth transmission of pockets from source to destination specifically when irregular movements follow the destination host in SDN, the errors include packet loss, data compromise etc. The accuracy of packets received at their desired destination is possible if networks for pockets and hosts are monitored instead of analysis of network snapshot statistically for the state,… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Generating A New Shilling Attack for Recommendation Systems

    Pradeep Kumar Singh1, Pijush Kanti Dutta Pramanik1, Madhumita Sardar1, Anand Nayyar2,3,*, Mehedi Masud4, Prasenjit Choudhury1
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 2827-2846, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.020437
    Abstract A collaborative filtering-based recommendation system has been an integral part of e-commerce and e-servicing. To keep the recommendation systems reliable, authentic, and superior, the security of these systems is very crucial. Though the existing shilling attack detection methods in collaborative filtering are able to detect the standard attacks, in this paper, we prove that they fail to detect a new or unknown attack. We develop a new attack model, named Obscure attack, with unknown features and observed that it has been successful in biasing the overall top-N list of the target users as intended. The Obscure attack is able to… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Gaining-Sharing Knowledge Based Algorithm for Solving Stochastic Programming Problems

    Prachi Agrawal1, Khalid Alnowibet2, Ali Wagdy Mohamed3,4,*
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 2847-2868, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.023126
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning Algorithms in Real-World Applications and Theories)
    Abstract This paper presents a novel application of metaheuristic algorithms for solving stochastic programming problems using a recently developed gaining sharing knowledge based optimization (GSK) algorithm. The algorithm is based on human behavior in which people gain and share their knowledge with others. Different types of stochastic fractional programming problems are considered in this study. The augmented Lagrangian method (ALM) is used to handle these constrained optimization problems by converting them into unconstrained optimization problems. Three examples from the literature are considered and transformed into their deterministic form using the chance-constrained technique. The transformed problems are solved using GSK algorithm and… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Detection of Low Sugar Concentration Solution Using Frequency Selective Surface (FSS)

    N. S. Ishak1, F. C. Seman2,*, N. Zainal3, N. A. Awang4
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 2869-2882, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.022694
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Antennas for Biomedical and Healthcare Applications)
    Abstract Sugar is important in daily food intake since it is used as food preservative and sweetener. Therefore, is important to analyze the influence of sugar on the spectroscopic properties of the sample. Terahertz spectroscopy is proven to be useful and an efficient method for sugar detection as well as for future food quality industry. However, the lack of detection sensitivity in Terahertz Spectroscopy has prevented it from being used in a widespread spectroscopic analysis technology. In this paper, Frequency Selective Surface (FSS) using the Terahertz Spectroscopy Time Domain Spectrum (THz-TDS) which operates at terahertz frequency range has been demonstrated for… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Machine Learning-Based Advertisement Banner Identification Technique for Effective Piracy Website Detection Process

    Lelisa Adeba Jilcha1, Jin Kwak2,*
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 2883-2899, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.023167
    Abstract In the contemporary world, digital content that is subject to copyright is facing significant challenges against the act of copyright infringement. Billions of dollars are lost annually because of this illegal act. The current most effective trend to tackle this problem is believed to be blocking those websites, particularly through affiliated government bodies. To do so, an effective detection mechanism is a necessary first step. Some researchers have used various approaches to analyze the possible common features of suspected piracy websites. For instance, most of these websites serve online advertisement, which is considered as their main source of revenue. In… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Incremental Learning Framework for Mining Big Data Stream

    Alaa Eisa1, Nora EL-Rashidy2, Mohammad Dahman Alshehri3,*, Hazem M. El-bakry1, Samir Abdelrazek1
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 2901-2921, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.021342
    Abstract At this current time, data stream classification plays a key role in big data analytics due to its enormous growth. Most of the existing classification methods used ensemble learning, which is trustworthy but these methods are not effective to face the issues of learning from imbalanced big data, it also supposes that all data are pre-classified. Another weakness of current methods is that it takes a long evaluation time when the target data stream contains a high number of features. The main objective of this research is to develop a new method for incremental learning based on the proposed ant… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    A New Metaheuristic Approach to Solving Benchmark Problems: Hybrid Salp Swarm Jaya Algorithm

    Erkan Erdemir1,*, Adem Alpaslan Altun2
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 2923-2941, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.022797
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Recent Advances in Metaheuristic Techniques and Their Real-World Applications)
    Abstract Metaheuristic algorithms are one of the methods used to solve optimization problems and find global or close to optimal solutions at a reasonable computational cost. As with other types of algorithms, in metaheuristic algorithms, one of the methods used to improve performance and achieve results closer to the target result is the hybridization of algorithms. In this study, a hybrid algorithm (HSSJAYA) consisting of salp swarm algorithm (SSA) and jaya algorithm (JAYA) is designed. The speed of achieving the global optimum of SSA, its simplicity, easy hybridization and JAYA's success in achieving the best solution have given us the idea… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    BERT-CNN: A Deep Learning Model for Detecting Emotions from Text

    Ahmed R. Abas1, Ibrahim Elhenawy1, Mahinda Zidan2,*, Mahmoud Othman2
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 2943-2961, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.021671
    Abstract Due to the widespread usage of social media in our recent daily lifestyles, sentiment analysis becomes an important field in pattern recognition and Natural Language Processing (NLP). In this field, users’ feedback data on a specific issue are evaluated and analyzed. Detecting emotions within the text is therefore considered one of the important challenges of the current NLP research. Emotions have been widely studied in psychology and behavioral science as they are an integral part of the human nature. Emotions describe a state of mind of distinct behaviors, feelings, thoughts and experiences. The main objective of this paper is to… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Multi-Scale Image Segmentation Model for Fine-Grained Recognition of Zanthoxylum Rust

    Fan Yang1, Jie Xu1,*, Haoliang Wei1, Meng Ye2, Mingzhu Xu1, Qiuru Fu1, Lingfei Ren3, Zhengwen Huang4
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 2963-2980, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.022810
    Abstract Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim, generally called prickly ash, is widely grown in China. Zanthoxylum rust is the main disease affecting the growth and quality of Zanthoxylum. Traditional method for recognizing the degree of infection of Zanthoxylum rust mainly rely on manual experience. Due to the complex colors and shapes of rust areas, the accuracy of manual recognition is low and difficult to be quantified. In recent years, the application of artificial intelligence technology in the agricultural field has gradually increased. In this paper, based on the DeepLabV2 model, we proposed a Zanthoxylum rust image segmentation model based on the FASPP module… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    The Mathematical Model for Streptococcus suis Infection in Pig-Human Population with Humidity Effect

    Inthira Chaiya1, Kamonchat Trachoo1, Kamsing Nonlaopon2, Din Prathumwan2,*
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 2981-2998, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.021856
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Role of Computer in Modelling & Solving Real-World Problems)
    Abstract In this paper, we developed a mathematical model for Streptococcus suis, which is an epidemic by considering the moisture that affects the infection. The disease is caused by Streptococcus suis infection found in pigs which can be transmitted to humans. The patients of Streptococcus suis were generally found in adults males and the elderly who contacted pigs or who ate uncooked pork. In human cases, the infection can cause a severe illness and death. This disease has an impact to the financial losses in the swine industry. In the development of models for this disease, we have divided the population… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    SSA-HIAST: A Novel Framework for Code Clone Detection

    Neha Saini*, Sukhdip Singh
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 2999-3017, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.022659
    Abstract In the recent era of software development, reusing software is one of the major activities that is widely used to save time. To reuse software, the copy and paste method is used and this whole process is known as code cloning. This activity leads to problems like difficulty in debugging, increase in time to debug and manage software code. In the literature, various algorithms have been developed to find out the clones but it takes too much time as well as more space to figure out the clones. Unfortunately, most of them are not scalable. This problem has been targeted… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Live Migration of Virtual Machines Using a Mamdani Fuzzy Inference System

    Tahir Alyas1, Iqra Javed1, Abdallah Namoun2, Ali Tufail2, Sami Alshmrany2, Nadia Tabassum3,*
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 3019-3033, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.019836
    Abstract Efforts were exerted to enhance the live virtual machines (VMs) migration, including performance improvements of the live migration of services to the cloud. The VMs empower the cloud users to store relevant data and resources. However, the utilization of servers has increased significantly because of the virtualization of computer systems, leading to a rise in power consumption and storage requirements by data centers, and thereby the running costs. Data center migration technologies are used to reduce risk, minimize downtime, and streamline and accelerate the data center move process. Indeed, several parameters, such as non-network overheads and downtime adjustment, may impact… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Robust Reversible Audio Watermarking Scheme for Telemedicine and Privacy Protection

    Xiaorui Zhang1,2,*, Xun Sun1, Xingming Sun1, Wei Sun3, Sunil Kumar Jha4
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 3035-3050, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.022304
    Abstract The leakage of medical audio data in telemedicine seriously violates the privacy of patients. In order to avoid the leakage of patient information in telemedicine, a two-stage reversible robust audio watermarking algorithm is proposed to protect medical audio data. The scheme decomposes the medical audio into two independent embedding domains, embeds the robust watermark and the reversible watermark into the two domains respectively. In order to ensure the audio quality, the Hurst exponent is used to find a suitable position for watermark embedding. Due to the independence of the two embedding domains, the embedding of the second-stage reversible watermark will… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    A Deep Two-State Gated Recurrent Unit for Particulate Matter (PM2.5) Concentration Forecasting

    Muhammad Zulqarnain1, Rozaida Ghazali1,*, Habib Shah2, Lokman Hakim Ismail1, Abdullah Alsheddy3, Maqsood Mahmud4
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 3051-3068, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.021629
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning Algorithms in Real-World Applications and Theories)
    Abstract Air pollution is a significant problem in modern societies since it has a serious impact on human health and the environment. Particulate Matter (PM2.5) is a type of air pollution that contains of interrupted elements with a diameter less than or equal to 2.5 m. For risk assessment and epidemiological investigations, a better knowledge of the spatiotemporal variation of PM2.5 concentration in a constant space-time area is essential. Conventional spatiotemporal interpolation approaches commonly relying on robust presumption by limiting interpolation algorithms to those with explicit and basic mathematical expression, ignoring a plethora of hidden but crucial manipulating aspects. Many advanced… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    A Robust Video Watermarking Scheme with Squirrel Search Algorithm

    Aman Bhaskar1, Chirag Sharma1, Khalid Mohiuddin2, Aman Singh1,*, Osman A. Nasr2, Mamdooh Alwetaishi3
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 3069-3089, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.019866
    Abstract Advancement in multimedia technology has resulted in protection against distortion, modification, and piracy. For implementing such protection, we have an existing technique called watermarking but obtaining desired distortion level with sufficient robustness is a challenging task for watermarking in multimedia applications. In the paper, we proposed a smart technique for video watermarking associating meta-heuristic algorithms along with an embedding method to gain an optimized efficiency. The main aim of the optimization algorithm is to obtain solutions with maximum robustness, and which should not exceed the set threshold of quality. To represent the accuracy of the proposed scheme, we employ a… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Attention-Based Bi-LSTM Model for Arabic Depression Classification

    Abdulqader M. Almars*
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 3091-3106, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.022609
    Abstract Depression is a common mental health issue that affects a large percentage of people all around the world. Usually, people who suffer from this mood disorder have issues such as low concentration, dementia, mood swings, and even suicide. A social media platform like Twitter allows people to communicate as well as share photos and videos that reflect their moods. Therefore, the analysis of social media content provides insight into individual moods, including depression. Several studies have been conducted on depression detection in English and less in Arabic. The detection of depression from Arabic social media lags behind due the complexity… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Robust Watermarking Scheme for NIfTI Medical Images

    Abhishek Kumar1,5, Kamred Udham Singh2, Visvam Devadoss Ambeth Kumar3, Tapan Kant4, Abdul Khader Jilani Saudagar5,*, Abdullah Al Tameem5, Mohammed Al Khathami5, Muhammad Badruddin Khan5, Mozaherul Hoque Abul Hasanat5, Khalid Mahmood Malik6
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 3107-3125, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.022817
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Edge Computing and Machine Learning for Improving Healthcare Services)
    Abstract Computed Tomography (CT) scan and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) technologies are widely used in medical field. Within the last few months, due to the increased use of CT scans, millions of patients have had their CT scans done. So, as a result, images showing the Corona Virus for diagnostic purposes were digitally transmitted over the internet. The major problem for the world health care system is a multitude of attacks that affect copyright protection and other ethical issues as images are transmitted over the internet. As a result, it is important to apply a robust and secure watermarking technique to… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Analysis and Modeling of Propagation in Tunnel at 3.7 and 28 GHz

    Md Abdus Samad1,2, Dong-You Choi1,*
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 3127-3143, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.023086
    Abstract In present-day society, train tunnels are extensively used as a means of transportation. Therefore, to ensure safety, streamlined train operations, and uninterrupted internet access inside train tunnels, reliable wave propagation modeling is required. We have experimented and measured wave propagation models in a 1674 m long straight train tunnel in South Korea. The measured path loss and the received signal strength were modeled with the Close-In (CI), Floating intercept (FI), CI model with a frequency-weighted path loss exponent (CIF), and alpha-beta-gamma (ABG) models, where the model parameters were determined using minimum mean square error (MMSE) methods. The measured and the… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Deep Learning Based Automated Diagnosis of Skin Diseases Using Dermoscopy

    Vatsala Anand1, Sheifali Gupta1, Deepika Koundal2,*, Shubham Mahajan3, Amit Kant Pandit3, Atef Zaguia4
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 3145-3160, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.022788
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Applications of Intelligent Systems in Computer Vision)
    Abstract Biomedical image analysis has been exploited considerably by recent technology involvements, carrying about a pattern shift towards ‘automation’ and ‘error free diagnosis’ classification methods with markedly improved accurate diagnosis productivity and cost effectiveness. This paper proposes an automated deep learning model to diagnose skin disease at an early stage by using Dermoscopy images. The proposed model has four convolutional layers, two maxpool layers, one fully connected layer and three dense layers. All the convolutional layers are using the kernel size of 3 * 3 whereas the maxpool layer is using the kernel size of 2 * 2. The dermoscopy images… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Partially Overlapping Channel Assignment Using Bonded and Non-Bonded Channels in IEEE 802.11n WLAN

    Md. Selim Al Mamun1,2, Fatema Akhter1,*
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 3161-3178, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.022214
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Pervasive Computing and Communication: Challenges, Technologies & Opportunities)
    Abstract Nowadays, wireless local area network (WLAN) has become prevalent Internet access due to its low-cost gadgets, flexible coverage and hassle-free simple wireless installation. WLAN facilitates wireless Internet services to users with mobile devices like smart phones, tablets, and laptops through deployment of multiple access points (APs) in a network field. Every AP operates on a frequency band called channel. Popular wireless standard such as IEEE 802.11n has a limited number of channels where frequency spectrum of adjacent channels overlaps partially with each other. In a crowded environment, users may experience poor Internet services due to channel collision i.e., interference from… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Correlation Analysis of Energy Consumption of Agricultural Rotorcraft

    Lihua Zhu1,*, Zhijian Xu1, Yu Wang1, Cheire Cheng2
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 3179-3192, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.023293
    Abstract With the rapid development of unmanned aerial vehicle technology, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have been widely used in the field of agricultural plant protection. Compared with fuel-driven UAVs, electrically driven rotorcrafts have many advantages such as lower cost, simpler operation, good maneuverability and cleaner power, which them popular in the plant protection. However, electrical rotorcrafts still face battery problems in actual operation, which limits its working time and application. Aiming at this issue, this paper studied the influence of rotorcraft flight parameters on energy consumption through series of carefully designed flight experiments. First of all, the linear motion experiments have… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    A Multi-Factor Authentication-Based Framework for Identity Management in Cloud Applications

    Wael Said1, Elsayed Mostafa1,*, M. M. Hassan1, Ayman Mohamed Mostafa2
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 3193-3209, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.023554
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Security and Privacy issues for various Emerging Technologies and Future Trends)
    Abstract User's data is considered as a vital asset of several organizations. Migrating data to the cloud computing is not an easy decision for any organization due to the privacy and security concerns. Service providers must ensure that both data and applications that will be stored on the cloud should be protected in a secure environment. The data stored on the public cloud will be vulnerable to outside and inside attacks. This paper provides interactive multi-layer authentication frameworks for securing user identities on the cloud. Different access control policies are applied for verifying users on the cloud. A security mechanism is… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Interpretable and Adaptable Early Warning Learning Analytics Model

    Shaleeza Sohail1, Atif Alvi2,*, Aasia Khanum3
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 3211-3225, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.023560
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Machine Learning Empowered Secure Computing for Intelligent Systems)
    Abstract Major issues currently restricting the use of learning analytics are the lack of interpretability and adaptability of the machine learning models used in this domain. Interpretability makes it easy for the stakeholders to understand the working of these models and adaptability makes it easy to use the same model for multiple cohorts and courses in educational institutions. Recently, some models in learning analytics are constructed with the consideration of interpretability but their interpretability is not quantified. However, adaptability is not specifically considered in this domain. This paper presents a new framework based on hybrid statistical fuzzy theory to overcome these… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    AMC Integrated Multilayer Wearable Antenna for Multiband WBAN Applications

    Iqra Aitbar1, Nosherwan Shoaib1,*, Akram Alomainy2, Abdul Quddious3, Symeon Nikolaou4, Muhammad Ali Imran5, Qammer H. Abbasi5
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 3227-3241, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.023008
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Advances in 5G Antenna Designs and Systems)
    Abstract In this paper, a compact, efficient and easy to fabricate wearable antenna integrated with Artificial Magnetic Conductor (AMC) is presented. Addition of slots and bevels/cuts in the rectangular monopole patch antenna yield a wide bandwidth along with band notches. The proposed antenna is backed with an AMC metasurface that changes the bidirectional radiation pattern to a unidirectional, thus, considerably reducing the Specific Absorption Ratio (SAR). The demonstrated antenna has a good coverage radiating away from the body and presents reduced radiation towards the body with a front-to-back ratio of 13 dB and maximum gain of 3.54 dB. The proposed design… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Optimization Analysis of Sustainable Solar Power System for Mobile Communication Systems

    Mohammed H. Alsharif1, Raju Kannadasan2, Amir Y. Hassan3, Wael Z. Tawfik4, Mun-Kyeom Kim5,*, Muhammad Asghar Khan6, Ahmad A. A. Solyman7
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 3243-3255, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.022348
    Abstract Cellular mobile technology has witnessed tremendous growth in recent times. One of the challenges facing the operators to extend the coverage of the networks to meet the rising demand for cellular mobile services is the power sources used to supply cellular towers with energy, especially in remote. Thus, switch from the conventional sources of energy to a greener and sustainable power model became a target of the academic and industrial sectors in many fields; one of these important fields is the telecommunication sector. Accordingly, this study aims to find the optimum sizing and techno-economic investigation of a solar photovoltaic scheme… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Efficient Forgery Detection Approaches for Digital Color Images

    Amira Baumy1, Abeer D. Algarni2,*, Mahmoud Abdalla3, Walid El-Shafai4,5, Fathi E. Abd El-Samie3,4, Naglaa F. Soliman2,3
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 3257-3276, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.021047
    Abstract This paper is concerned with a vital topic in image processing: color image forgery detection. The development of computing capabilities has led to a breakthrough in hacking and forgery attacks on signal, image, and data communicated over networks. Hence, there is an urgent need for developing efficient image forgery detection algorithms. Two main types of forgery are considered in this paper: splicing and copy-move. Splicing is performed by inserting a part of an image into another image. On the other hand, copy-move forgery is performed by copying a part of the image into another position in the same image. The… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    A DQN-Based Cache Strategy for Mobile Edge Networks

    Siyuan Sun1,*, Junhua Zhou2, Jiuxing Wen3, Yifei Wei1, Xiaojun Wang4
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 3277-3291, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.020471
    Abstract The emerging mobile edge networks with content caching capability allows end users to receive information from adjacent edge servers directly instead of a centralized data warehouse, thus the network transmission delay and system throughput can be improved significantly. Since the duplicate content transmissions between edge network and remote cloud can be reduced, the appropriate caching strategy can also improve the system energy efficiency of mobile edge networks to a great extent. This paper focuses on how to improve the network energy efficiency and proposes an intelligent caching strategy according to the cached content distribution model for mobile edge networks based… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Proposed Different Signal Processing Tools for Efficient Optical Wireless Communications

    Hend Ibrahim1, Abeer D. Algarni2,*, Mahmoud Abdalla1, Walid El-Shafai3,4, Fathi E. Abd El-Samie2,3, Naglaa F. Soliman1,2
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 3293-3318, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.022436
    Abstract Optical Wireless Communication (OWC) is a new trend in communication systems to achieve large bandwidth, high bit rate, high security, fast deployment, and low cost. The basic idea of the OWC is to transmit data on unguided media with light. This system requires multi-carrier modulation such as Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM). This paper studies optical OFDM performance based on Intensity Modulation with Direct Detection (IM/DD) system. This system requires a non-negativity constraint. The paper presents a framework for wireless optical OFDM system that comprises (IM/DD) with different forms, Direct Current biased Optical OFDM (DCO-OFDM), Asymmetrically Clipped Optical OFDM (ACO-OFDM),… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Multi-Agent Deep Q-Networks for Efficient Edge Federated Learning Communications in Software-Defined IoT

    Prohim Tam1, Sa Math1, Ahyoung Lee2, Seokhoon Kim1,3,*
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 3319-3335, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.023215
    Abstract Federated learning (FL) activates distributed on-device computation techniques to model a better algorithm performance with the interaction of local model updates and global model distributions in aggregation averaging processes. However, in large-scale heterogeneous Internet of Things (IoT) cellular networks, massive multi-dimensional model update iterations and resource-constrained computation are challenging aspects to be tackled significantly. This paper introduces the system model of converging software-defined networking (SDN) and network functions virtualization (NFV) to enable device/resource abstractions and provide NFV-enabled edge FL (eFL) aggregation servers for advancing automation and controllability. Multi-agent deep Q-networks (MADQNs) target to enforce a self-learning softwarization, optimize resource allocation… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Automated Identification Algorithm Using CNN for Computer Vision in Smart Refrigerators

    Pulkit Jain1, Paras Chawla1, Mehedi Masud2,*, Shubham Mahajan3, Amit Kant Pandit3
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 3337-3353, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.023053
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Applications of Intelligent Systems in Computer Vision)
    Abstract Machine Learning has evolved with a variety of algorithms to enable state-of-the-art computer vision applications. In particular the need for automating the process of real-time food item identification, there is a huge surge of research so as to make smarter refrigerators. According to a survey by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), it has been found that 1.3 billion tons of food is wasted by consumers around the world due to either food spoilage or expiry and a large amount of food is wasted from homes and restaurants itself. Smart refrigerators have been very successful in… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Modelling and Verification of Context-Aware Intelligent Assistive Formalism

    Shahid Yousaf1,*, Hafiz Mahfooz Ul Haque2, Abbas Khalid1, Muhammad Adnan Hashmi3, Eraj Khan1
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 3355-3373, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.023019
    Abstract Recent years have witnessed the expeditious evolution of intelligent smart devices and autonomous software technologies with the expanded domains of computing from workplaces to smart computing in everyday routine life activities. This trend has been rapidly advancing towards the new generation of systems where smart devices play vital roles in acting intelligently on behalf of the users. Context-awareness has emerged from the pervasive computing paradigm. Context-aware systems have the ability to acquire contextual information from the surrounding environment autonomously, perform reasoning on it, and then adapt their behaviors accordingly. With the proliferation of context-aware systems and smart sensors, real-time monitoring… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Two-Tier Clustering with Routing Protocol for IoT Assisted WSN

    A. Arokiaraj Jovith1, Mahantesh Mathapati2, M. Sundarrajan3, N. Gnanasankaran4, Seifedine Kadry5, Maytham N. Meqdad6, Shabnam Mohamed Aslam7,*
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 3375-3392, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.022668
    Abstract In recent times, Internet of Things (IoT) has become a hot research topic and it aims at interlinking several sensor-enabled devices mainly for data gathering and tracking applications. Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is an important component in IoT paradigm since its inception and has become the most preferred platform to deploy several smart city application areas like home automation, smart buildings, intelligent transportation, disaster management, and other such IoT-based applications. Clustering methods are widely-employed energy efficient techniques with a primary purpose i.e., to balance the energy among sensor nodes. Clustering and routing processes are considered as Non-Polynomial (NP) hard problems… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Webpage Matching Based on Visual Similarity

    Mengmeng Ge1, Xiangzhan Yu1,*, Lin Ye1,2, Jiantao Shi1
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 3393-3405, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.017220
    Abstract With the rapid development of the Internet, the types of webpages are more abundant than in previous decades. However, it becomes severe that people are facing more and more significant network security risks and enormous losses caused by phishing webpages, which imitate the interface of real webpages and deceive the victims. To better identify and distinguish phishing webpages, a visual feature extraction method and a visual similarity algorithm are proposed. First, the visual feature extraction method improves the Vision-based Page Segmentation (VIPS) algorithm to extract the visual block and calculate its signature by perceptual hash technology. Second, the visual similarity… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Automated Grading of Breast Cancer Histopathology Images Using Multilayered Autoencoder

    Shakra Mehak1, M. Usman Ashraf2, Rabia Zafar3, Ahmed M. Alghamdi4, Ahmed S. Alfakeeh5, Fawaz Alassery6, Habib Hamam7, Muhammad Shafiq8,*
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 3407-3423, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.022705
    Abstract Breast cancer (BC) is the most widely recognized cancer in women worldwide. By 2018, 627,000 women had died of breast cancer (World Health Organization Report 2018). To diagnose BC, the evaluation of tumours is achieved by analysis of histological specimens. At present, the Nottingham Bloom Richardson framework is the least expensive approach used to grade BC aggressiveness. Pathologists contemplate three elements, 1. mitotic count, 2. gland formation, and 3. nuclear atypia, which is a laborious process that witness's variations in expert's opinions. Recently, some algorithms have been proposed for the detection of mitotic cells, but nuclear atypia in breast cancer… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Image Dehazing Based on Pixel Guided CNN with PAM via Graph Cut

    Fayadh Alenezi*
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 3425-3443, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.023339
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Analysis, Processing, and Applications of Fuzzy System and Deep Learning)
    Abstract Image dehazing is still an open research topic that has been undergoing a lot of development, especially with the renewed interest in machine learning-based methods. A major challenge of the existing dehazing methods is the estimation of transmittance, which is the key element of haze-affected imaging models. Conventional methods are based on a set of assumptions that reduce the solution search space. However, the multiplication of these assumptions tends to restrict the solutions to particular cases that cannot account for the reality of the observed image. In this paper we reduce the number of simplified hypotheses in order to attain… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    A Novel Hybrid Tunicate Swarm Naked Mole-Rat Algorithm for Image Segmentation and Numerical Optimization

    Supreet Singh1,2, Nitin Mittal1, Urvinder Singh2, Rohit Salgotra2, Atef Zaguia3, Dilbag Singh4,*
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 3445-3462, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.023004
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Applications of Intelligent Systems in Computer Vision)
    Abstract This paper provides a new optimization algorithm named as tunicate swarm naked mole-rat algorithm (TSNMRA) which uses hybridization concept of tunicate swarm algorithm (TSA) and naked mole-rat algorithm (NMRA). This newly developed algorithm uses the characteristics of both algorithms (TSA and NMRA) and enhance the exploration abilities of NMRA. Apart from the hybridization concept, important parameter of NMRA such as mating factor is made to be self-adaptive with the help of simulated annealing mutation operator and there is no need to define its value manually. For evaluating the working capabilities of proposed TSNMRA, it is tested for 100-digit challenge (CEC… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Twitter Arabic Sentiment Analysis to Detect Depression Using Machine Learning

    Dhiaa A. Musleh, Taef A. Alkhales, Reem A. Almakki*, Shahad E. Alnajim, Shaden K. Almarshad, Rana S. Alhasaniah, Sumayh S. Aljameel, Abdullah A. Almuqhim
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 3463-3477, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.022508
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Machine Learning Empowered Secure Computing for Intelligent Systems)
    Abstract Depression has been a major global concern for a long time, with the disease affecting aspects of many people's daily lives, such as their moods, eating habits, and social interactions. In Arabic culture, there is a lack of awareness regarding the importance of facing and curing mental health diseases. However, people all over the world, including Arab citizens, tend to express their feelings openly on social media, especially Twitter, as it is a platform designed to enable the expression of emotions through short texts, pictures, or videos. Users are inclined to treat their Twitter accounts as diaries because the platform… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Optimizing Energy Conservation in V2X Communications for 5G Networks

    Arif Husen1,2, Abid Soahil1,*, Mohammad Hijji2, Muhammad Hasanain Chaudary1, Farooq Ahmed1
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 3479-3495, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.023840
    Abstract The smart vehicles are one of critical enablers for automated services in smart cities to provide intelligent transportation means without human intervention. In order to fulfil requirements, Vehicle-to-Anything(V2X) communications aims to manage massive connectivity and high traffic load on base stations and extend the range over multiple hops in 5G networks. However, V2X networking faces several challenges from dynamic topology caused by high velocity of nodes and routing overhead that degrades the network performance and increases energy consumption. The existing routing scheme for V2X networking lacks energy efficiency and scalability for high velocity nodes with dense distribution. In order to… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Algorithm Development of Cloud Removal from Solar Images Based on Pix2Pix Network

    Xian Wu1, Wei Song1,2,3,*, Xukun Zhang1, Ganghua Lin2,4, Haimin Wang5,6,7, Yuanyong Deng2,4
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 3497-3512, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.022325
    Abstract Sky clouds affect solar observations significantly. Their shadows obscure the details of solar features in observed images. Cloud-covered solar images are difficult to be used for further research without pre-processing. In this paper, the solar image cloud removing problem is converted to an image-to-image translation problem, with a used algorithm of the Pixel to Pixel Network (Pix2Pix), which generates a cloudless solar image without relying on the physical scattering model. Pix2Pix is consists of a generator and a discriminator. The generator is a well-designed U-Net. The discriminator uses PatchGAN structure to improve the details of the generated solar image, which… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Optimization of Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Logic System Using Grasshopper Optimization Algorithm

    Saima Hassan1, Mojtaba Ahmadieh Khanesar2, Nazar Kalaf Hussein3, Samir Brahim Belhaouari4,*, Usman Amjad5, Wali Khan Mashwani6
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 3513-3531, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.022018
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Recent Advances in Metaheuristic Techniques and Their Real-World Applications)
    Abstract The estimation of the fuzzy membership function parameters for interval type 2 fuzzy logic system (IT2-FLS) is a challenging task in the presence of uncertainty and imprecision. Grasshopper optimization algorithm (GOA) is a fresh population based meta-heuristic algorithm that mimics the swarming behavior of grasshoppers in nature, which has good convergence ability towards optima. The main objective of this paper is to apply GOA to estimate the optimal parameters of the Gaussian membership function in an IT2-FLS. The antecedent part parameters (Gaussian membership function parameters) are encoded as a population of artificial swarm of grasshoppers and optimized using its algorithm.… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    A Hybrid Modified Sine Cosine Algorithm Using Inverse Filtering and Clipping Methods for Low Autocorrelation Binary Sequences

    Siti Julia Rosli1,2, Hasliza A Rahim1,2,*, Khairul Najmy Abdul Rani1,2, Ruzelita Ngadiran2,3, Wan Azani Mustafa3,4, Muzammil Jusoh1,2, Mohd Najib Mohd Yasin1,2, Thennarasan Sabapathy1,2, Mohamedfareq Abdulmalek5, Wan Suryani Firuz Wan Ariffin2, Ahmed Alkhayyat6
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 3533-3556, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.021719
    Abstract The essential purpose of radar is to detect a target of interest and provide information concerning the target's location, motion, size, and other parameters. The knowledge about the pulse trains’ properties shows that a class of signals is mainly well suited to digital processing of increasing practical importance. A low autocorrelation binary sequence (LABS) is a complex combinatorial problem. The main problems of LABS are low Merit Factor (MF) and shorter length sequences. Besides, the maximum possible MF equals 12.3248 as infinity length is unable to be achieved. Therefore, this study implemented two techniques to propose a new metaheuristic algorithm… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Deep Neural Network and Pseudo Relevance Feedback Based Query Expansion

    Abhishek Kumar Shukla*, Sujoy Das
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 3557-3570, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.022411
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Emerging Applications of Artificial Intelligence, Machine learning and Data Science)
    Abstract The neural network has attracted researchers immensely in the last couple of years due to its wide applications in various areas such as Data mining, Natural language processing, Image processing, and Information retrieval etc. Word embedding has been applied by many researchers for Information retrieval tasks. In this paper word embedding-based skip-gram model has been developed for the query expansion task. Vocabulary terms are obtained from the top “k” initially retrieved documents using the Pseudo relevance feedback model and then they are trained using the skip-gram model to find the expansion terms for the user query. The performance of the… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Path Planning Based on the Improved RRT* Algorithm for the Mining Truck

    Dong Wang1,*, Shutong Zheng1, Yanxi Ren2, Danjie Du3
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 3571-3587, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.022183
    Abstract Planning a reasonable driving path for trucks in mining areas is a key point to improve mining efficiency. In this paper, a path planning method based on Rapidly-exploring Random Tree Star (RRT*) is proposed, and several optimizations are carried out in the algorithm. Firstly, the selection process of growth target points is optimized. Secondly, the process of selecting the parent node is optimized and a Dubins curve is used to constraint it. Then, the expansion process from tree node to random point is optimized by the gravitational repulsion field method and dynamic step method. In the obstacle detection process, Dubins… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    VANET Jamming and Adversarial Attack Defense for Autonomous Vehicle Safety

    Haeri Kim1, Jong-Moon Chung1,2,*
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 3589-3605, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.023073
    Abstract The development of Vehicular Ad-hoc Network (VANET) technology is helping Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) services to become a reality. Vehicles can use VANETs to communicate safety messages on the road (while driving) and can inform their location and share road condition information in real-time. However, intentional and unintentional (e.g., packet/frame collision) wireless signal jamming can occur, which will degrade the quality of communication over the channel, preventing the reception of safety messages, and thereby posing a safety hazard to the vehicle's passengers. In this paper, VANET jamming detection applying Support Vector Machine (SVM) machine learning technology is used to classify… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Intelligent Model for Predicting the Quality of Services Violation

    Muhammad Adnan Khan1,2, Asma Kanwal3, Sagheer Abbas3, Faheem Khan4, T. Whangbo4,*
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 3607-3619, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.023480
    Abstract Cloud computing is providing IT services to its customer based on Service level agreements (SLAs). It is important for cloud service providers to provide reliable Quality of service (QoS) and to maintain SLAs accountability. Cloud service providers need to predict possible service violations before the emergence of an issue to perform remedial actions for it. Cloud users’ major concerns; the factors for service reliability are based on response time, accessibility, availability, and speed. In this paper, we, therefore, experiment with the parallel mutant-Particle swarm optimization (PSO) for the detection and predictions of QoS violations in terms of response time, speed,… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Computational Algorithms for the Analysis of Cancer Virotherapy Model

    Ali Raza1,2,*, Dumitru Baleanu3,4, Muhammad Rafiq5, Syed Zaheer Abbas6, Abubakar Siddique6, Umer Javed8, Mehvish Naz7, Arooj Fatima6, Tayyba Munawar6, Hira Batool6, Zaighum Nazir6
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 3621-3634, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.023286
    Abstract Cancer is a common term for many diseases that can affect any part of the body. In 2020, ten million people will die due to cancer. A worldwide leading cause of death is cancer by the World Health Organization (WHO) report. Interaction of cancer cells, viral therapy, and immune response are identified in this model. Mathematical and computational modeling is an effective tool to predict the dynamics of cancer virotherapy. The cell population is categorized into three parts like uninfected cells (x), infected cells (y), virus-free cells (v), and immune cells (z). The modeling of cancer-like diseases is based on… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Evolution of Desertification Types on the North Shore of Qinghai Lake

    Wenzheng Yu1, Jintao Cui2, Yang Gao1, Mingxuan Zhu1, Li Shao3, Yanbo Shen4,5,*, Xiaozhao Zhang6, Chen Guo7, Hanxiaoya Zhang8
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 3635-3646, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.023195
    Abstract Land desertification is a widely concerned ecological environment problem. Studying the evolution trend of desertification types is of great significance to prevent and control land desertification. In this study, we applied the decision tree classification method, to study the land area and temporal and spatial change law of different types of desertification in the North Bank of Qinghai Lake area from 1987 to 2014, based on the current land use situation and TM remote sensing image data of Haiyan County, Qinghai Province, The results show that the area of mild desertification land and moderate desertification land in the study area… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Arabic Fake News Detection Using Deep Learning

    Khaled M. Fouad1,3, Sahar F. Sabbeh1,2,*, Walaa Medhat1,3
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 3647-3665, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.021449
    Abstract Nowadays, an unprecedented number of users interact through social media platforms and generate a massive amount of content due to the explosion of online communication. However, because user-generated content is unregulated, it may contain offensive content such as fake news, insults, and harassment phrases. The identification of fake news and rumors and their dissemination on social media has become a critical requirement. They have adverse effects on users, businesses, enterprises, and even political regimes and governments. State of the art has tackled the English language for news and used feature-based algorithms. This paper proposes a model architecture to detect fake… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Citrus Diseases Recognition Using Deep Improved Genetic Algorithm

    Usra Yasmeen1, Muhammad Attique Khan1, Usman Tariq2, Junaid Ali Khan1, Muhammad Asfand E. Yar3, Ch. Avais Hanif4, Senghour Mey5, Yunyoung Nam6,*
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 3667-3684, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.022264
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Recent Advances in Deep Learning and Saliency Methods for Agriculture)
    Abstract Agriculture is the backbone of each country, and almost 50% of the population is directly involved in farming. In Pakistan, several kinds of fruits are produced and exported the other countries. Citrus is an important fruit, and its production in Pakistan is higher than the other fruits. However, the diseases of citrus fruits such as canker, citrus scab, blight, and a few more impact the quality and quantity of this Fruit. The manual diagnosis of these diseases required an expert person who is always a time-consuming and costly procedure. In the agriculture sector, deep learning showing significant success in the… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Radio Optical Network Simulation Tool (RONST)

    Yasmine I. Abdelhak1,2, Fady Kamel3, Moustafa Hafez2, Hussein E. Kotb4,5, Haitham A. Omran5, Tawfik Ismail6,7,*, Hassan Mostafa2,3
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 3685-3702, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.022470
    Abstract This paper presents a radio optical network simulation tool (RONST) for modeling optical-wireless systems. For a typical optical and electrical chain environment, performance should be optimized concurrently before system implementation. As a result, simulating such systems turns out to be a multidisciplinary problem. The governing equations are incompatible with co-simulation in the traditional environments of existing software (SW) packages. The ultra-wideband (UWB) technology is an ideal candidate for providing high-speed short-range access for wireless services. The limited wireless reach of this technology is a significant limitation. A feasible solution to the problem of extending UWB signals is to transmit these… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    An Enhanced Privacy Preserving, Secure and Efficient Authentication Protocol for VANET

    Safiullah Khan1, Ali Raza2,3, Seong Oun Hwang4,*
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 3703-3719, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.023476
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Machine Learning Empowered Secure Computing for Intelligent Systems)
    Abstract Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) have attracted growing interest in both academia and industry because they can provide a viable solution that improves road safety and comfort for travelers on roads. However, wireless communications over open-access environments face many security and privacy issues that may affect deployment of large-scale VANETs. Researchers have proposed different protocols to address security and privacy issues in a VANET, and in this study we cryptanalyze some of the privacy preserving protocols to show that all existing protocols are vulnerable to the Sybil attack. The Sybil attack can be used by malicious actors to create fake… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Research on Optimization of Random Forest Algorithm Based on Spark

    Suzhen Wang1, Zhanfeng Zhang1,*, Shanshan Geng1, Chaoyi Pang2
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 3721-3731, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.015378
    Abstract As society has developed, increasing amounts of data have been generated by various industries. The random forest algorithm, as a classification algorithm, is widely used because of its superior performance. However, the random forest algorithm uses a simple random sampling feature selection method when generating feature subspaces which cannot distinguish redundant features, thereby affecting its classification accuracy, and resulting in a low data calculation efficiency in the stand-alone mode. In response to the aforementioned problems, related optimization research was conducted with Spark in the present paper. This improved random forest algorithm performs feature extraction according to the calculated feature importance… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Diabetic Retinopathy Detection Using Classical-Quantum Transfer Learning Approach and Probability Model

    Amna Mir1, Umer Yasin1, Salman Naeem Khan1, Atifa Athar3,*, Riffat Jabeen2, Sehrish Aslam1
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 3733-3746, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.022524
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Advances in Artificial Intelligence and Machine learning in Biomedical and Healthcare Informatics)
    Abstract Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) is a common complication of diabetes mellitus that causes lesions on the retina that affect vision. Late detection of DR can lead to irreversible blindness. The manual diagnosis process of DR retina fundus images by ophthalmologists is time consuming and costly. While, Classical Transfer learning models are extensively used for computer aided detection of DR; however, their maintenance costs limits detection performance rate. Therefore, Quantum Transfer learning is a better option to address this problem in an optimized manner. The significance of Hybrid quantum transfer learning approach includes that it performs heuristically. Thus, our proposed methodology aims… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Prediction of Changed Faces with HSCNN

    Jinho Han*
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 3747-3759, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.023683
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Analysis, Processing, and Applications of Fuzzy System and Deep Learning)
    Abstract Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) have been successfully employed in the field of image classification. However, CNN trained using images from several years ago may be unable to identify how such images have changed over time. Cross-age face recognition is, therefore, a substantial challenge. Several efforts have been made to resolve facial changes over time utilizing recurrent neural networks (RNN) with CNN. The structure of RNN contains hidden contextual information in a hidden state to transfer a state in the previous step to the next step. This paper proposes a novel model called Hidden State-CNN (HSCNN). This adds to CNN a… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Empathic Responses of Behavioral-Synchronization in Human-Agent Interaction

    Sung Park1,*, Seongeon Park2, Mincheol Whang2
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 3761-3784, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.023738
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Deep Vision Architectures and Algorithms for Edge AI Computing)
    Abstract Artificial entities, such as virtual agents, have become more pervasive. Their long-term presence among humans requires the virtual agent's ability to express appropriate emotions to elicit the necessary empathy from the users. Affective empathy involves behavioral mimicry, a synchronized co-movement between dyadic pairs. However, the characteristics of such synchrony between humans and virtual agents remain unclear in empathic interactions. Our study evaluates the participant's behavioral synchronization when a virtual agent exhibits an emotional expression congruent with the emotional context through facial expressions, behavioral gestures, and voice. Participants viewed an emotion-eliciting video stimulus (negative or positive) with a virtual agent. The… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Design of QoS Aware Routing Protocol for IoT Assisted Clustered WSN

    Ashit Kumar Dutta1, S. Srinivasan2, Bobbili Prasada Rao3, B. Hemalatha4, Irina V. Pustokhina5, Denis A. Pustokhin6, Gyanendra Prasad Joshi7,*
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 3785-3801, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.023657
    Abstract In current days, the domain of Internet of Things (IoT) and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) are combined for enhancing the sensor related data transmission in the forthcoming networking applications. Clustering and routing techniques are treated as the effective methods highly used to attain reduced energy consumption and lengthen the lifetime of the WSN assisted IoT networks. In this view, this paper presents an Ensemble of Metaheuristic Optimization based QoS aware Clustering with Multihop Routing (EMO-QoSCMR) Protocol for IoT assisted WSN. The proposed EMO-QoSCMR protocol aims to achieve QoS parameters such as energy, throughput, delay, and lifetime. The proposed model involves… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Continuous Tracking of GPS Signals with Data Wipe-Off Method

    Dah-Jing Jwo*, Kun-Chan Lee
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 3803-3820, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.023442
    Abstract The decentralized pre-filter based vector tracking loop (VTL) configuration with data wipe-off (DWO) method of the Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver is proposed for performance enhancement. It is a challenging task to continuously track the satellites’ signals in weak signal environment for the GPS receiver. VTL is a very attractive technique as it can provide tracking capability in signal-challenged environments. In the VTL, each channel will not form a loop independently. On the contrary, the signals in the channels of VTL are shared with each other; the navigation processor in turn predicts the code phases. Thus, the receiver can successfully… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    An Experimental Simulation of Addressing Auto-Configuration Issues for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Idrees Sarhan Kocher*
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 3821-3838, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.023478
    Abstract Applications of Wireless Sensor devices are widely used by various monitoring sections such as environmental monitoring, industrial sensing, habitat modeling, healthcare and enemy movement detection systems. Researchers were found that 16 bytes packet size (payload) requires Media Access Control (MAC) and globally unique network addresses overheads as more as the payload itself which is not reasonable in most situations. The approach of using a unique address isn't preferable for most Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) applications as well. Based on the mentioned drawbacks, the current work aims to fill the existing gap in the field area by providing two strategies. First,… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    An IoT-Based Intrusion Detection System Approach for TCP SYN Attacks

    Abdelwahed Berguiga*, Ahlem Harchay
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 3839-3851, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.023399
    Abstract The success of Internet of Things (IoT) deployment has emerged important smart applications. These applications are running independently on different platforms, almost everywhere in the world. Internet of Medical Things (IoMT), also referred as the healthcare Internet of Things, is the most widely deployed application against COVID-19 and offering extensive healthcare services that are connected to the healthcare information technologies systems. Indeed, with the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, a large number of interconnected devices designed to create smart networks. These networks monitor patients from remote locations as well as tracking medication orders. However, IoT may be jeopardized by attacks… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Modeling of Explainable Artificial Intelligence for Biomedical Mental Disorder Diagnosis

    Anwer Mustafa Hilal1, Imène ISSAOUI2, Marwa Obayya3, Fahd N. Al-Wesabi4, Nadhem NEMRI5, Manar Ahmed Hamza1,*, Mesfer Al Duhayyim6, Abu Sarwar Zamani1
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 3853-3867, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.022663
    Abstract The abundant existence of both structured and unstructured data and rapid advancement of statistical models stressed the importance of introducing Explainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI), a process that explains how prediction is done in AI models. Biomedical mental disorder, i.e., Autism Spectral Disorder (ASD) needs to be identified and classified at early stage itself in order to reduce health crisis. With this background, the current paper presents XAI-based ASD diagnosis (XAI-ASD) model to detect and classify ASD precisely. The proposed XAI-ASD technique involves the design of Bacterial Foraging Optimization (BFO)-based Feature Selection (FS) technique. In addition, Whale Optimization Algorithm (WOA) with… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    TinyML-Based Fall Detection for Connected Personal Mobility Vehicles

    Ramon Sanchez-Iborra1, Luis Bernal-Escobedo2, Jose Santa3,*, Antonio Skarmeta2
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 3869-3885, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.022610
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Artificial Intelligence Enabled Intelligent Transportation Systems)
    Abstract A new wave of electric vehicles for personal mobility is currently crowding public spaces. They offer a sustainable and efficient way of getting around in urban environments, however, these devices bring additional safety issues, including serious accidents for riders. Thereby, taking advantage of a connected personal mobility vehicle, we present a novel on-device Machine Learning (ML)-based fall detection system that analyzes data captured from a range of sensors integrated on an on-board unit (OBU) prototype. Given the typical processing limitations of these elements, we exploit the potential of the TinyML paradigm, which enables embedding powerful ML algorithms in constrained units.… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    LDSVM: Leukemia Cancer Classification Using Machine Learning

    Abdul Karim1, Azhari Azhari1,*, Mobeen Shahroz2, Samir Brahim Belhaouri3, Khabib Mustofa1
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 3887-3903, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.021218
    Abstract Leukemia is blood cancer, including bone marrow and lymphatic tissues, typically involving white blood cells. Leukemia produces an abnormal amount of white blood cells compared to normal blood. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) microarrays provide reliable medical diagnostic services to help more patients find the proposed treatment for infections. DNA microarrays are also known as biochips that consist of microscopic DNA spots attached to a solid glass surface. Currently, it is difficult to classify cancers using microarray data. Nearly many data mining techniques have failed because of the small sample size, which has become more critical for organizations. However, they are not… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Computational Investigation of Multiband EMNZ Metamaterial Absorber for Terahertz Applications

    Ismail Hossain1, Md Samsuzzaman2, Mohd Hafiz Baharuddin3,*, Norsuzlin Binti Mohd Sahar1, Mandeep Singh Jit Singh1, Mohammad Tariqul Islam3
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 3905-3920, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.022027
    Abstract This study presents an Epsilon Mu near-zero (EMNZ) nanostructured metamaterial absorber (NMMA) for visible regime applications. The resonator and dielectric layers are made of tungsten (W) and quartz (fused), where the working band is expanded by changing the resonator layer's design. Due to perfect impedance matching with plasmonic resonance characteristics, the proposed NMMA structure is achieved an excellent absorption of 99.99% at 571 THz, 99.50% at 488.26 THz, and 99.32% at 598 THz frequencies. The absorption mechanism is demonstrated by the theory of impedance, electric field, and power loss density distributions, respectively. The geometric parameters are explored and analyzed to… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    CryptoNight Mining Algorithm with YAC Consensus for Social Media Marketing Using Blockchain

    Anwer Mustafa Hil1, Fahd N. Al-Wesabi2, Hadeel Alsolai3, Ola Abdelgney Omer Ali4, Nadhem Nemri5, Manar Ahmed Hamza1,*, Abu Sarwar Zamani1, Mohammed Rizwanullah1
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 3921-3936, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.022301
    Abstract Social media is a platform in which user can create, share and exchange the knowledge/information. Social media marketing is to identify the different consumer's demands and engages them to create marketing resources. The popular social media platforms are Microsoft, Snapchat, Amazon, Flipkart, Google, eBay, Instagram, Facebook, Pin interest, and Twitter. The main aim of social media marketing deals with various business partners and build good relationship with millions of customers by satisfying their needs. Disruptive technology is replacing old approaches in the social media marketing to new technology-based marketing. However, this disruptive technology creates some issues like fake news, insecure,… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    The Impact of Semi-Supervised Learning on the Performance of Intelligent Chatbot System

    Sudan Prasad Uprety, Seung Ryul Jeong*
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 3937-3952, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.023127
    Abstract Artificial intelligent based dialog systems are getting attention from both business and academic communities. The key parts for such intelligent chatbot systems are domain classification, intent detection, and named entity recognition. Various supervised, unsupervised, and hybrid approaches are used to detect each field. Such intelligent systems, also called natural language understanding systems analyze user requests in sequential order: domain classification, intent, and entity recognition based on the semantic rules of the classified domain. This sequential approach propagates the downstream error; i.e., if the domain classification model fails to classify the domain, intent and entity recognition fail. Furthermore, training such intelligent… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Modeling of Artificial Intelligence Based Traffic Flow Prediction with Weather Conditions

    Mesfer Al Duhayyim1, Amani Abdulrahman Albraikan2, Fahd N. Al-Wesabi3,4, Hiba M. Burbur5, Mohammad Alamgeer6, Anwer Mustafa Hilal7, Manar Ahmed Hamza7,*, Mohammed Rizwanullah7
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 3953-3968, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.022692
    Abstract Short-term traffic flow prediction (TFP) is an important area in intelligent transportation system (ITS), which is used to reduce traffic congestion. But the avail of traffic flow data with temporal features and periodic features are susceptible to weather conditions, making TFP a challenging issue. TFP process are significantly influenced by several factors like accident and weather. Particularly, the inclement weather conditions may have an extreme impact on travel time and traffic flow. Since most of the existing TFP techniques do not consider the impact of weather conditions on the TF, it is needed to develop effective TFP with the consideration… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Intelligent Classification Model for Biomedical Pap Smear Images on IoT Environment

    CSS Anupama1, T. J. Benedict Jose2, Heba F. Eid3, Nojood O Aljehane4, Fahd N. Al-Wesabi5,*, Marwa Obayya6, Anwer Mustafa Hilal7
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 3969-3983, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.022701
    Abstract Biomedical images are used for capturing the images for diagnosis process and to examine the present condition of organs or tissues. Biomedical image processing concepts are identical to biomedical signal processing, which includes the investigation, improvement, and exhibition of images gathered using x-ray, ultrasound, MRI, etc. At the same time, cervical cancer becomes a major reason for increased women's mortality rate. But cervical cancer is an identified at an earlier stage using regular pap smear images. In this aspect, this paper devises a new biomedical pap smear image classification using cascaded deep forest (BPSIC-CDF) model on Internet of Things (IoT)… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Industrial Automation Information Analogy for Smart Grid Security

    Muhammad Asif1, Ishfaq Ali1, Shahbaz Ahmad1, Azeem Irshad2, Akber Abid Gardezi3, Fawaz Alassery4, Habib Hamam5, Muhammad Shafiq6,*
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 3985-3999, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.023010
    Abstract Industrial automation or assembly automation is a strictly monitored environment, in which changes occur at a good speed. There are many types of entities in the focusing environment, and the data generated by these devices is huge. In addition, because the robustness is achieved by sensing redundant data, the data becomes larger. The data generating device, whether it is a sensing device or a physical device, streams the data to a higher-level deception device for calculation, so that it can be driven and configured according to the updated conditions. With the emergence of the Industry 4.0 concept that includes a… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    OBSO Based Fractional PID for MPPT-Pitch Control of Wind Turbine Systems

    Ibrahim M. Mehedi1,2,*, Ubaid M. Al-Saggaf1,2, Mahendiran T. Vellingiri1, Ahmad H. Milyani1, Nordin Bin Saad3, Nor Zaihar Bin Yahaya3
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 4001-4017, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.021981
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Recent Advances in Metaheuristic Techniques and Their Real-World Applications)
    Abstract In recent times, wind energy receives maximum attention and has become a significant green energy source globally. The wind turbine (WT) entered into several domains such as power electronics that are employed to assist the connection process of a wind energy system and grid. The turbulent characteristics of wind profile along with uncertainty in the design of WT make it highly challenging for prolific power extraction. The pitch control angle is employed to effectively operate the WT at the above nominal wind speed. Besides, the pitch controller needs to be intelligent for the extraction of sustainable secure energy and keep… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Optimization of Deep Learning Model for Plant Disease Detection Using Particle Swarm Optimizer

    Ahmed Elaraby1,*, Walid Hamdy2, Madallah Alruwaili3
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 4019-4031, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.022161
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Recent Advances in Deep Learning and Saliency Methods for Agriculture)
    Abstract Plant diseases are a major impendence to food security, and due to a lack of key infrastructure in many regions of the world, quick identification is still challenging. Harvest losses owing to illnesses are a severe problem for both large farming structures and rural communities, motivating our mission. Because of the large range of diseases, identifying and classifying diseases with human eyes is not only time-consuming and labor intensive, but also prone to being mistaken with a high error rate. Deep learning-enabled breakthroughs in computer vision have cleared the road for smartphone-assisted plant disease and diagnosis. The proposed work describes… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Estimating Weibull Parameters Using Least Squares and Multilayer Perceptron vs. Bayes Estimation

    Walid Aydi1,3,*, Fuad S. Alduais2,4
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 4033-4050, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.023119
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Emerging Applications of Artificial Intelligence, Machine learning and Data Science)
    Abstract The Weibull distribution is regarded as among the finest in the family of failure distributions. One of the most commonly used parameters of the Weibull distribution (WD) is the ordinary least squares (OLS) technique, which is useful in reliability and lifetime modeling. In this study, we propose an approach based on the ordinary least squares and the multilayer perceptron (MLP) neural network called the OLSMLP that is based on the resilience of the OLS method. The MLP solves the problem of heteroscedasticity that distorts the estimation of the parameters of the WD due to the presence of outliers, and eases… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Distance Matrix and Markov Chain Based Sensor Localization in WSN

    Omaima Bamasaq1, Daniyal Alghazzawi2, Surbhi Bhatia3, Pankaj Dadheech4,*, Farrukh Arslan5, Sudhakar Sengan6, Syed Hamid Hassan2
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 4051-4068, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.023634
    Abstract Applications based on Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) have shown to be quite useful in monitoring a particular geographic area of interest. Relevant geometries of the surrounding environment are essential to establish a successful WSN topology. But it is literally hard because constructing a localization algorithm that tracks the exact location of Sensor Nodes (SN) in a WSN is always a challenging task. In this research paper, Distance Matrix and Markov Chain (DM-MC) model is presented as node localization technique in which Distance Matrix and Estimation Matrix are used to identify the position of the node. The method further employs a… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Intelligent Fuzzy Based High Gain Non-Isolated Converter for DC Micro-Grids

    M. Bharathidasan1, V. Indragandhi1, Ramya Kuppusamy2, Yuvaraja Teekaraman3, Shabana Urooj4,*, Norah Alwadi5
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 4069-4084, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.021846
    Abstract Renewable electricity options, such as fuel cells, solar photovoltaic, and batteries, are being integrated, which has made DC micro-grids famous. For DC micro-grid systems, a multi input interleaved non-isolated dc-dc converter is suggested by the use of coupled inductor techniques. Since it compensates for mismatches in photovoltaic devices and allows for separate and continuous power flow from these sources. The proposed converter has the benefits of high gain, a low ripple in the output voltage, minimal stress voltage across the power semiconductor devices, a low ripple in inductor current, high power density, and high efficiency. Soft-switching techniques are used to… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Design and Simulation of Ring Network-on-Chip for Different Configured Nodes

    Arpit Jain1, Rakesh Kumar Dwivedi1, Hammam Alshazly2,*, Adesh Kumar3, Sami Bourouis4, Manjit Kaur5
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 4085-4100, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.023017
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Recent Advances in Metaheuristic Techniques and Their Real-World Applications)
    Abstract The network-on-chip (NoC) technology is frequently referred to as a front-end solution to a back-end problem. The physical substructure that transfers data on the chip and ensures the quality of service begins to collapse when the size of semiconductor transistor dimensions shrinks and growing numbers of intellectual property (IP) blocks working together are integrated into a chip. The system on chip (SoC) architecture of today is so complex that not utilizing the crossbar and traditional hierarchical bus architecture. NoC connectivity reduces the amount of hardware required for routing and functions, allowing SoCs with NoC interconnect fabrics to operate at higher… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Improved DHOA-Fuzzy Based Load Scheduling in IoT Cloud Environment

    R. Joshua Samuel Raj1, V. Ilango2, Prince Thomas3, V. R. Uma4, Fahd N. Al-Wesabi5,6,*, Radwa Marzouk7, Anwer Mustafa Hilal8
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 4101-4114, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.022063
    Abstract Internet of things (IoT) has been significantly raised owing to the development of broadband access network, machine learning (ML), big data analytics (BDA), cloud computing (CC), and so on. The development of IoT technologies has resulted in a massive quantity of data due to the existence of several people linking through distinct physical components, indicating the status of the CC environment. In the IoT, load scheduling is realistic technique in distinct data center to guarantee the network suitability by falling the computer hardware and software catastrophe and with right utilize of resource. The ideal load balancer improves many factors of… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    From Network Functions to NetApps: The 5GASP Methodology

    Jorge Gallego-Madrid1, Ramon Sanchez-Iborra2,*, Antonio Skarmeta1
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 4115-4134, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.021754
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Security and Privacy Issues in Systems and Networks Beyond 5G)
    Abstract As the 5G ecosystem continues its consolidation, the testing and validation of the innovations achieved by integrators and verticals service providers is of preponderant importance. In this line, 5GASP is a European H2020-funded project that aims at easing the idea-to-market process through the creation of an European testbed that is fully automated and self-service, in order to foster rapid development and testing of new and innovative 5G Network Applications (NetApps). The main objective of this paper is to present the 5GASP's unified methodology to design, develop and onboard NetApps within the scope of different vertical services, letting them use specific… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Integration of Fog Computing for Health Record Management Using Blockchain Technology

    Mesfer AI Duhayyim1, Fahd N. Al-Wesabi2, Radwa Marzouk3, Abdalla Ibrahim Abdalla Musa4, Noha Negm5, Anwer Mustafa Hilal6, Manar Ahmed Hamza6,*, Mohammed Rizwanullah6
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 4135-4149, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.022336
    Abstract Internet of Medical Things (IoMT) is a breakthrough technology in the transfer of medical data via a communication system. Wearable sensor devices collect patient data and transfer them through mobile internet, that is, the IoMT. Recently, the shift in paradigm from manual data storage to electronic health recording on fog, edge, and cloud computing has been noted. These advanced computing technologies have facilitated medical services with minimum cost and available conditions. However, the IoMT raises a high concern on network security and patient data privacy in the health care system. The main issue is the transmission of health data with… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    An Automated Real-Time Face Mask Detection System Using Transfer Learning with Faster-RCNN in the Era of the COVID-19 Pandemic

    Maha Farouk S. Sabir1, Irfan Mehmood2,*, Wafaa Adnan Alsaggaf3, Enas Fawai Khairullah3, Samar Alhuraiji4, Ahmed S. Alghamdi5, Ahmed A. Abd El-Latif6
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 4151-4166, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.017865
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Recent Advances in Deep Learning, Information Fusion, and Features Selection for Video Surveillance Application)
    Abstract Today, due to the pandemic of COVID-19 the entire world is facing a serious health crisis. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), people in public places should wear a face mask to control the rapid transmission of COVID-19. The governmental bodies of different countries imposed that wearing a face mask is compulsory in public places. Therefore, it is very difficult to manually monitor people in overcrowded areas. This research focuses on providing a solution to enforce one of the important preventative measures of COVID-19 in public places, by presenting an automated system that automatically localizes masked and unmasked human… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Object Detection for Cargo Unloading System Based on Fuzzy C Means

    Sunwoo Hwang1, Jaemin Park1, Jongun Won2, Yongjang Kwon3, Youngmin Kim1,*
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 4167-4181, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.023295
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Analysis, Processing, and Applications of Fuzzy System and Deep Learning)
    Abstract With the recent increase in the utilization of logistics and courier services, it is time for research on logistics systems fused with the fourth industry sector. Algorithm studies related to object recognition have been actively conducted in convergence with the emerging artificial intelligence field, but so far, algorithms suitable for automatic unloading devices that need to identify a number of unstructured cargoes require further development. In this study, the object recognition algorithm of the automatic loading device for cargo was selected as the subject of the study, and a cargo object recognition algorithm applicable to the automatic loading device is… More >

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