Vol.70, No.3, 2022, pp.5039-5058, doi:10.32604/cmc.2022.019975
Local-Tetra-Patterns for Face Recognition Encoded on Spatial Pyramid Matching
  • Khuram Nawaz Khayam1, Zahid Mehmood2,*, Hassan Nazeer Chaudhry3, Muhammad Usman Ashraf4, Usman Tariq5, Mohammed Nawaf Altouri6, Khalid Alsubhi7
1 Department of Software Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology, Taxila, 47050, Pakistan
2 Department of Computer Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology, Taxila, 47050, Pakistan
3 Department of Electronics, Information and Bioengineering, Politecnico di Milano, Milano, 20122, Italy
4 Department of Computer Science, University of Management and Technology, Sialkot, Pakistan
5 College of Computer Engineering and Science, Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University, Alkharj, 16278, Saudi Arabia
6 Department of Computer Science, Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic University, Riyadh, 13318, Saudi Arabia
7 Department of Computer Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, 21589, Saudi Arabia
* Corresponding Author: Zahid Mehmood. Email:
Received 04 May 2021; Accepted 03 August 2021; Issue published 11 October 2021
Face recognition is a big challenge in the research field with a lot of problems like misalignment, illumination changes, pose variations, occlusion, and expressions. Providing a single solution to solve all these problems at a time is a challenging task. We have put some effort to provide a solution to solving all these issues by introducing a face recognition model based on local tetra patterns and spatial pyramid matching. The technique is based on a procedure where the input image is passed through an algorithm that extracts local features by using spatial pyramid matching and max-pooling. Finally, the input image is recognized using a robust kernel representation method using extracted features. The qualitative and quantitative analysis of the proposed method is carried on benchmark image datasets. Experimental results showed that the proposed method performs better in terms of standard performance evaluation parameters as compared to state-of-the-art methods on AR, ORL, LFW, and FERET face recognition datasets.
Face recognition; local tetra patterns; spatial pyramid matching; robust kernel representation; max-pooling
Cite This Article
Khayam, K. N., Mehmood, Z., Chaudhry, H. N., Ashraf, M. U., Tariq, U. et al. (2022). Local-Tetra-Patterns for Face Recognition Encoded on Spatial Pyramid Matching. CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, 70(3), 5039–5058.
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