Open Access


Realistic Smile Expression Recognition Approach Using Ensemble Classifier with Enhanced Bagging

Oday A. Hassen1,*, Nur Azman Abu1, Zaheera Zainal Abidin1, Saad M. Darwish2
1 University Technical Malaysia Melaka, Department of Information Technology, Melaka, 76100, Malaysia
2 Institute of Graduate Studies and Research, University of Alexandria, Alexandria, El Shatby, 21526, Egypt
* Corresponding Author: Oday A. Hassen. Email:

Computers, Materials & Continua 2022, 70(2), 2453-2469.

Received 03 April 2021; Accepted 08 June 2021; Issue published 27 September 2021


A robust smile recognition system could be widely used for many real-world applications. Classification of a facial smile in an unconstrained setting is difficult due to the invertible and wide variety in face images. In this paper, an adaptive model for smile expression classification is suggested that integrates a fast features extraction algorithm and cascade classifiers. Our model takes advantage of the intrinsic association between face detection, smile, and other face features to alleviate the over-fitting issue on the limited training set and increase classification results. The features are extracted taking into account to exclude any unnecessary coefficients in the feature vector; thereby enhancing the discriminatory capacity of the extracted features and reducing the computational process. Still, the main causes of error in learning are due to noise, bias, and variance. Ensemble helps to minimize these factors. Combinations of multiple classifiers decrease variance, especially in the case of unstable classifiers, and may produce a more reliable classification than a single classifier. However, a shortcoming of bagging as the best ensemble classifier is its random selection, where the classification performance relies on the chance to pick an appropriate subset of training items. The suggested model employs a modified form of bagging while creating training sets to deal with this challenge (error-based bootstrapping). The experimental results for smile classification on the JAFFE, CK+, and CK+48 benchmark datasets show the feasibility of our proposed model.


Ensemble classifier; smile expression detection; features extraction

Cite This Article

O. A. Hassen, N. Azman Abu, Z. Zainal Abidin and S. M. Darwish, "Realistic smile expression recognition approach using ensemble classifier with enhanced bagging," Computers, Materials & Continua, vol. 70, no.2, pp. 2453–2469, 2022.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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