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Natural Convection in an H-Shaped Porous Enclosure Filled with a Nanofluid

Zehba A. S. Raizah1, Abdelraheem M. Aly1,2,*
1 Department of Mathematics, College of Science, King Khalid University, Abha, 62529, Saudi Arabia
2 Department of Mathematics, South Valley University, Qena, 83523, Egypt
* Corresponding Author: Abdelraheem M. Aly. Email:

Computers, Materials & Continua 2021, 66(3), 3233-3251.

Received 29 June 2020; Accepted 25 October 2020; Issue published 28 December 2020


This study simulates natural convection flow resulting from heat partitions in an H-shaped enclosure filled with a nanofluid using an incompressible smoothed particle hydrodynamics (ISPH) method. The right area of the H-shaped enclosure is saturated with non-Darcy porous media. The center variable partitions of the H-shaped enclosure walls are kept at a high-temperature Th. The left and right walls of the H-shaped enclosure are positioned at a low temperature Tc and the other walls are adiabatic. In ISPH method, the source term in pressure Poisson equation (PPE) is modified. The influences of the controlling parameters on the temperature distributions, the velocity field and average Nusselt number are discussed. The performed simulations proofed that the length of the heated partitions augments the velocity field and temperature distributions in an H-shaped enclosure. Rayleigh number rises the fluid velocity and heat transfer in an H-shaped enclosure. The porous layer on the right side of the H-shaped enclosure at a lower Darcy parameter causes a high resistance force for the fluid flow and heat transfer characteristic inside an H-shaped enclosure. Added nanoparticles reduces the velocity field and enhances the heat transfer inside an H-shaped enclosure.


H-shaped enclosure; ISPH; natural convection; nanofluid; porous medium

Cite This Article

Z. A. S. Raizah and A. M. Aly, "Natural convection in an h-shaped porous enclosure filled with a nanofluid," Computers, Materials & Continua, vol. 66, no.3, pp. 3233–3251, 2021.


This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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