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Adults with Congenital Heart Disease during the COVID-19 Era: One-Year Tertiary Center Experience

Fatma A. Taha1,2,*, Osama Amoudi1, Fareed Alnozha1, Reda Abuelatta1
1 Adult Cardiology Department, Madinah Cardiac Center, Madinah, Saudi Arabia
2 Cardiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt
* Corresponding Author: Fatma A. Taha. Email:

Congenital Heart Disease 2022, 17(4), 399-419.

Received 10 November 2021; Accepted 29 March 2022; Issue published 04 July 2022


Background: Adult patients with congenital heart disease (ACHD) might be at high risk of Coronavirus disease- 2019 (COVID-19). This study aimed to report on a one-year tertiary center experience regards COVID-19 infection in ACHD patients. Methods: This is a one-year (March-2020 to March-2021) tertiary-center retrospective study that enrolled all ACHD patients; COVID-19 positive patients’ medical records, and management were reported. Results: We recorded 542 patients, 205 (37.8%) COVID-19-positive, and 337 (62.2%) COVID-19-negative patients. Palliated single ventricle and Eisenmenger syndrome patients were more vulnerable to COVID-19 infection (P < 0.05*). Cardiovascular COVID-19 complications were arrhythmias in 47 (22.9%) patients, heart failure in 39 (19.0%) patients, cyanosis in 12 (5.9%) patients, stroke/TIA in 5 (2.4%) patients, hypertension and infective endocarditis in 2 (1.0%) patients for each, pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary embolism in 1 (0.5%) patient for each. 11 (5.4%) patients were managed with home isolation, 147 (71.7%) patients required antibiotics, 32 (15.6%) patients required intensive care unit (ICU), 8 (3.9%) patients required inotropes, 7 (3.4%) patients required mechanical ventilation, and 2 (1.0%) patients required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Thromboprophylaxis was given to all 46 (22.4%) hospitalized patients. American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association classification revealed that complex lesions, and FC-C/D categories were more likely to develop severe/critical symptoms, that required mechanical ventilation and ECMO (P < 0.05*). Mortality was reported in 3 (0.6%) patients with no difference between groups (P = 0.872). 193 (35.6%) patients were vaccinated. Conclusions: COVID-19 infection in ACHD patients require individualized risk stratification and management. Eisenmenger syndrome, single ventricle palliation, complex lesions, and FC-C/D patients were more vulnerable to severe/critical symptoms that required ICU admission, mechanical ventilation, and ECMO. The vaccine was mostly tolerable.


Adult congenital heart disease; COVID-19 era; COVID-19 pandemic; COVID-19 positive congenital heart disease patients; COVID-19 infected adults with congenital heart disease

Cite This Article

Taha, F. A., Amoudi, O., Alnozha, F., Abuelatta, R. (2022). Adults with Congenital Heart Disease during the COVID-19 Era: One-Year Tertiary Center Experience. Congenital Heart Disease, 17(4), 399–419.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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