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Fetal Bradyarrhythmias: Etiopathogenesis, Diagnosis and Treatment: Between Literature Review and Experience of a Tertiary Center

Elio Caruso*, Silvia Farruggio, Salvatore Agati, Corrado Di Mambro
Mediterranean Pediatric Cardiology Center “Bambino Gesù” San Vincenzo Hospital, Contrada Sirina, Taormina, 98039, Italy
* Corresponding Author: Elio Caruso. Email:

Congenital Heart Disease 2021, 16(4), 309-331. https://doi.org/10.32604/CHD.2021.015470

Received 21 December 2020; Accepted 08 February 2021; Issue published 19 April 2021

Abstract

Fetal arrhythmias reach up around 10% of the total third-level perinatal cardiology references. Sustained bradycardia is defined as a baseline fetal heart rate (FHR) of less than 110 bpm sustained for at least 10 min. The overall incidence of malignant fetal bradyarrhythmias, such as complete atrioventricular block (AVB) and channellopathies, is relatively rare, 1:5000 pregnancies, but represents a serious emergency for the gynecologist, neonatologists, and pediatric cardiologists. Fetal complete AVB is strongly associated with maternal connective tissue disease, but it can be also associated with congenital heart disease and usually with a poorer prognosis with high risk of fetal hydrops and abortion. Currently, the treatment of severe fetal bradyarrhythmias is principally pharmacological and aims to increase the FHR, besides an early resolution of underlying causes, when possible, and a promptly management of fetal heart failure. Intrauterine electrostimulation nowadays is an experimental pioneering method, reserved for limited selected cases.

Keywords

Fetal arrhythmias; hydrops; bradyarrhythmia; atrioventricular block

Cite This Article

Caruso, E., Farruggio, S., Agati, S., Mambro, C. D. (2021). Fetal Bradyarrhythmias: Etiopathogenesis, Diagnosis and Treatment: Between Literature Review and Experience of a Tertiary Center. Congenital Heart Disease, 16(4), 309–331.



This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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