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# DEM Simulations of Resistance of Particle to Intruders during Quasistatic Penetrations

Shaomin Liang, Lu Liu, Shunying Ji*
State Key Laboratory of Structural Analysis for Industrial Equipment, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, 116023, China
* Corresponding Author: Shunying Ji. Email:
(This article belongs to this Special Issue: Computational Mechanics of Granular Materials and its Engineering Applications)

Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences 2021, 128(1), 145-160. https://doi.org/10.32604/cmes.2021.016403

Received 03 March 2021; Accepted 07 April 2021; Issue published 28 June 2021

### Abstract

Based on the discrete element method and hydrostatics theory, an improved Archimedes principle is proposed to study the rules pertaining to resistance changes during the penetration process of an intruder into the particulate materials. The results illustrate the fact that the lateral contribution to the resistance is very small, while the tangential force of the lateral resistance originates from friction effects. Conversely, the resistance of particulate materials on the intruder mainly occurs at the bottom part of the intruding object. Correspondingly, the factors that determine the resistance of the bottom part of the intruding object and the rules pertaining to resistance changes are analyzed. It is found that when the volume density and friction coefficient of the particles and the radius of the bottom surface of the cylindrical intruder are varied, the resistance–depth curve consists of a nonlinear segment and a linear region. The intersection of the two stages occurs at the same location h/ ˜R = 0.15 ± 0.055. The slope of the linear stage is determined by the friction coefficient of the particles. Accordingly, the relationship between the slope and the friction coefficient is quantified. Finally, it is shown that the slope is independent of the geometry of the intruder.

### Keywords

Particulate materials; improved Archimedes principle; quasistatic resistance; discrete element method

### Cite This Article

Liang, S., Liu, L., Ji, S. (2021). DEM Simulations of Resistance of Particle to Intruders during Quasistatic Penetrations. CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, 128(1), 145–160.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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