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An Evolutionary Algorithm for Non-Destructive Reverse Engineering of Integrated Circuits

Huan Zhang1,2, Jiliu Zhou1,2,*, Xi Wu2
1 College of Computer Science, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610065, China
2 School of Computer Science, Chengdu University of Information Technology, Chengdu, 610225, China
* Corresponding Author: Jiliu Zhou. Email:
(This article belongs to this Special Issue: Intelligent Models for Security and Resilience in Cyber Physical Systems)

Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences 2021, 127(3), 1151-1175.

Received 20 December 2020; Accepted 09 February 2021; Issue published 24 May 2021


In hardware Trojan detection technology, destructive reverse engineering can restore an original integrated circuit with the highest accuracy. However, this method has a much higher overhead in terms of time, effort, and cost than bypass detection. This study proposes an algorithm, called mixed-feature gene expression programming, which applies non-destructive reverse engineering to the chip with bypass detection data. It aims to recover the original integrated circuit hardware, or else reveal the unknown circuit design in the chip.


Hardware Trojans; Trojan detection; mixed-feature; gene expression programming

Cite This Article

Zhang, H., Zhou, J., Wu, X. (2021). An Evolutionary Algorithm for Non-Destructive Reverse Engineering of Integrated Circuits. CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, 127(3), 1151–1175.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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