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Displaying 6721-6730 on page 673 of 7489. Per Page  
  • Oxygen Transport in Tissue Engineering Systems: Cartilage and Myocardium
  • Abstract Efficient transport of oxygen is one of the main requirements in tissue engineering systems in order to avoid cell death in the inner tissue regions and support uniform tissue regeneration. In this paper, we review approaches to design of tissue engineering systems with adequate oxygen delivery for cultivation of cartilage and myocardium, two distinctly different tissue types with respect to the tissue structure and oxygen requirements. Mathematical modeling was used to support experimental results and predict oxygen transport within the cultivated tissues and correlate it to the cell response and tissue properties.
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  • Solid/Liquid Phase Change: Recent Studies and Models
  • Abstract Some problems related to solid/liquid phase change are presented. Attention is focused on interface modeling for numerical analysis and one-dimensional directional growing and melting. Microgravity relevance of some situations is emphasized. It is shown, in particular, that in some circumstances melting is not the simple reversal of crystal growth due to some (still poorly known) phenomena (nucleation and growth of liquid droplets in the bulk, solid and liquid dendrites due to a morphological instability of the phase boundary). Relevant mathematical models are discussed and described (to a certain extent) for analysis and/or characterization of these phenomena when they are disjoint…
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  • Recent Developments in Oscillatory Marangoni Convection
  • Abstract A Marangoni Convection Modeling Research group was formed in Japan in order to investigate oscillatory thermocapillary flow systematically over a wide range of Prandtl number (Pr). The research by the group represents the current status of the subject. The present article reports the work done by the group members. The work is divided into three Pr ranges (low, medium and high) because the cause of oscillations is different in each range. For the low-Pr case, the transition to oscillatory flow is preceded by a steady bifurcation to three-dimensional convection. For the first time an experimental proof of this first transition…
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  • Flow Features and Industrial Applications of TSE Rheoextrusion Process
  • Abstract This paper presents an overview of diverse extrusion techniques and, in particular, a focused discussion about the rheoextrusion process for semi-solid casting (a novel casting process for the fabrication of high quality metals). The review reveals a wealth of interesting rheological and microstructural features, illustrating qualitative and quantitative data. The analysis is supported by relevant numerical results and examples. It is shown how numerical studies can lead to significant insights into these processes by providing more detailed information on the fundamental mechanisms of morphology development (during phase change) and profile forming. The die filling and solidification behaviours within extrusion dies…
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  • Modeling the Flow of Molten Steel in a Tundish Containing an Inclusion Filtering Trap
  • Abstract A novel physical chemical filtration process in a tundish for removal of inclusion particles from molten steel is proposed and analyzed. The considered inclusion particles are mainly composed of the minerals alumina (Al2O3 and spinel (MgAl2O4, which have an affinity to adhere (on contact) to an inclusion trap. An industrial tundish is considered and modified with a zigzag channel block insert installed across the molten steel flow so that when the molten steel flows through the zigzag channels, the inclusion particles are driven into contact with the channel surfaces by increased recirculation and turbulence. The inclusions will bond with the…
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  • Numerical Study of Liquid Metal Flow in a Rectangular Duct under the Influence of a Heterogeneous Magnetic Field
  • Abstract We simulated numerically the laminar flow in the geometry and the magnetic field of the experimental channel used in [Andreev, Kolesnikov, and Thess (2006)]. This provides detailed information about the electric potential distribution for the laminar regime (numerical simulation) and in the turbulent regime as well (experiment). As follows from comparison of simulated and experimental results, the flow under the magnet is determined by the interaction parameter N = Ha2 / Re representing the ratio between magnetic force, determined by the Hartmann number Ha, and inertial force, determined by the Reynolds number Re. We compared two variants: (i)(Re,N)=(2000,18.6) (experiment), (400,20.25)…
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  • An arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) method for interfacial flows with insoluble surfactants
  • Abstract An arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) method for interfacial flows with insoluble surfactants is presented. The interface is captured using a coupled level set and volume of fluid method, which takes advantage of the strengths of both the level set method and the volume of fluid method. By directly tracking the surfactant mass, the method conserves surfactant mass, and prevents surfactant from diffusing off the interface. Interfacial area is also tracked. To accurately approximate the interfacial area, the fluid interface is reconstructed using piece-wise parabolas. The surfactant concentration, which determines the local surface tension through an equation of state, is then computed…
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  • Adaptive 3D finite elements with high aspect ratio for dendritic growth of a binary alloy including fluid flow induced by shrinkage
  • Abstract An adaptive phase field model for the solidification of binary alloys in three space dimensions is presented. The fluid flow in the liquid due to different liquid/solid densities is taken into account. The unknowns are the phase field, the alloy concentration and the velocity/pressure in the liquid. Continuous, piecewise linear finite elements are used for the space discretization, a semi-implicit scheme is used for time discretization. An adaptive method allows the number of degrees of freedom to be reduced, the mesh tetrahedrons having high aspect ratio whenever needed. Numerical results show that our method is effective and allows to perform…
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  • Non-Graded Adaptive Grid Approaches to the Incompressible Navier-Stokes Equations
  • Abstract We describe two finite difference schemes for simulating incompressible flows on nonuniform meshes using quadtree/octree data structures. The first one uses a cell-centered Poisson solver that yields first-order accurate solutions, while producing symmetric linear systems. The second uses a node-based Poisson solver that produces second-order accurate solutions and second-order accurate gradients, while producing nonsymmetric linear systems as the basis for a second-order accurate Navier-Stokes solver. The grids considered can be non-graded, i.e. the difference of level between two adjacent cells can be arbitrary. In both cases semi-Lagrangian methods are used to update the intermediate fluid velocity in a standard projection…
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