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  • New Applications for Cryotherapy
  • Abstract Cryotherapy, or more commonly known as cold therapy, is the use of low temperatures in medical treatment. The most prominent use of cryotherapy is for cryosurgery where application of very low temperatures is used to ablate diseased tissue (e.g., most commonly in dermatology). Recent research, however, shows that low temperature may modulate collagen fibers beyond the already known effects of extreme cooling on joint pain relieve and inflammation. The goal of this brief review is to outline the known effects of extreme cooling on molecular, fiber and cell physiology and to leverage these properties in various potential medical applications. Specially,…
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  • A C-GAN Denoising Algorithm in Projection Domain for Micro-CT
  • Abstract Micro-CT provides a high-resolution 3D imaging of micro-architecture in a non-invasive way, which becomes a significant tool in biomedical research and preclinical applications. Due to the limited power of micro-focus X-ray tube, photon starving occurs and noise is inevitable for the projection images, resulting in the degradation of spatial resolution, contrast and image details. In this paper, we propose a C-GAN (Conditional Generative Adversarial Nets) denoising algorithm in projection domain for Micro-CT imaging. The noise statistic property is utilized directly and a novel variance loss is developed to suppress the blurry effects during denoising procedure. Conditional Generative Adversarial Networks (C-GAN)…
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  • New Concept to Non-Invasively Screen Iron Deficiency in Patients
  • Abstract Nearly two billion people are afflicted with iron deficiency and approximately 300 million children globally have anemia. Most of those affected are unaware of their lack of iron, in part because detection of iron deficiency requires a blood test. It is becoming increasingly important to screen these individuals to reduce medical cost and avoid chronic disease conditions. There are limited settings of laboratory infrastructure for standard blood-based tests around the world to routinely accomplish this important screening test. We propose a new concept to use either human hair or nail as a screening method to detect steady state iron content…
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  • A Patient-Specific Computational Fluid Dynamic Model of Middle Cerebral Artery Aneurysm Before and One Year After Surgery
  • Abstract Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been widely used for studying intracranial aneurysm hemodynamics, while its use for guiding clinical strategy is still in development. In this study, CFD simulations helped inform treatment decision for a middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysm case was investigated. A patient with a 10.4 × 9.8 mm aneurysm attached with a small aneurysm at the edge of the trifurcation in the left MCA was included in this study. For removing the MCA aneurysm, two scenarios were considered: Plan-A involved clipping the small aneurysm and Plan-B involved clipping the whole aneurysm. A suitable treatment plan was decided…
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  • A Study on the Finite Element Model for Head Injury in Facial Collision Accident
  • Abstract In order to predict and evaluate injury mechanism and biomechanical response of the facial impact on head injury in a crash accident. With the combined modern medical imaging technologies, namely computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), both geometric and finite element (FE) models for human head-neck with detailed cranio-facial structure were developed. The cadaveric head impact tests were conducted to validate the headneck finite element model. The intracranial pressure, skull dynamic response and skull-brain relative displacement of the whole head-neck model were compared with experimental data. Nine typical cases of facial traffic accidents were simulated, with the individual…
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  • A Retrospective Respiratory Gating System Based on Epipolar Consistency Conditions
  • Abstract Motion artifacts of in vivo imaging, due to rapid respiration rate and respiration displacements of the mice while free-breathing, is a major challenge in micro computed tomography(micro-CT). The respiratory gating is often served for either projective images acquisition or per projection qualification, so as to eliminate the artifacts brought by in vivo motion. In this paper, we propose a novel respiratory gating method, which firstly divides one rotation cycle into a number of segments, and extracts the respiratory signal from the projective image series of current segment by the value of the epipolar consistency conditions (ECC), then in terms of…
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  • Multifrequency Microwave Imaging for Brain Stroke Detection
  • Abstract CT and MRI are often used in the diagnosis and monitoring of stroke. However, they are expensive, time-consuming, produce ionizing radiation (CT), and not suitable for continuous monitoring stroke. Microwave imaging (MI) has been extensively investigated for identifying several types of human organs, including breast, brain, lung, liver, and gastric. The authors recently developed a holographic microwave imaging (HMI) algorithm for biological object detection. However, this method has difficulty in providing accurate information on embedded small inclusions. This paper describes the feasibility of the use of a multifrequency HMI algorithm for brain stroke detection. A numerical system, including HMI data…
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  • On the Onset of Cracks in Arteries1
  • Abstract We present a theoretical approach to study the onset of failure localization into cracks in arterial wall. The arterial wall is a soft composite comprising hydrated ground matrix of proteoglycans reinforced by spatially dispersed elastin and collagen fibers. As any material, the arterial tissue cannot accumulate and dissipate strain energy beyond a critical value. This critical value is enforced in the constitutive theory via energy limiters. The limiters automatically bound reachable stresses and allow examining the mathematical condition of strong ellipticity. Loss of the strong ellipticity physically means inability of material to propagate superimposed waves. The waves cannot propagate because…
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  • New Concept in Resuscitative Endovascular Balloon Occlusion of the Aorta (REBOA)
  • Abstract The world-wide impact of traumatic injury and associated hemorrhage on human health and well-being is significant. Methods to manage bleeding from sites within the torso, referred to as non-compressible torso hemorrhage (NCTH), remain largely limited to the use of conventional operative techniques. The overall mortality rate of patients with NCTH is approximately 50%. Studies from the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq have suggested that up to 80% of potentially survivable patients die as a result of uncontrolled exsanguinating hemorrhage. The commercially available resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) is a percutaneous device for the rapid control of torso…
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  • Kinematic and Dynamic Characteristics of Pulsating Flow in 180o Tube
  • Abstract Kinematic and dynamic characteristics of pulsating flow in a model of human aortic arch are obtained by a computational analysis. Three-dimensional flow processes are summarized by pressure distributions on the symmetric plane together with velocity and pressure contours on a few cross sections for systolic acceleration and deceleration. Without considering the effects of aortic tapering and the carotid arteries, the development of tubular boundary layer with centrifugal forces and pulsation are also analyzed for flow separation and backflow during systolic deceleration.
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