Vol.6, No.2, 2018-Table of Contents
  • Alternatives of Small-Scale Biorefineries for the Integrated Production of Xylitol from Sugarcane Bagasse
  • Abstract Small-scale biorefinery from sugarcane bagasse offers new possibilities to the sugar and ethanol industries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of a small-scale biorefinery for the production of xylitol from sugarcane bagasse. The liquid fraction from the autohydrolysis treatment was selected as the source of sugars for xylitol and two scenarios were analyzed for the residual solid: ethanol or pellet production. A technical-economic analysis of alternatives was applied. The internal rate of return (IRR) was used to compare the selected proposals. The highest IRR values were obtained when processing 70,000 dry tons per year of bagasse.… More
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  • Nanostructural Evolution of Sugarcane Rind and Pith Submitted to Hydrothermal Pretreatments
  • Abstract Lignocellulose conversion into cellulosic ethanol and coproducts starts with a pretreatment step. Most current industrial plants of cellulosic ethanol use thermochemical pretreatments under hydrothermal conditions, with or without addition of acid catalyst. Such pretreatments modify biomass chemistry and morphology, particularly at the nanoscale. In this work, we use X-ray diffraction, dynamic vapor sorption and calorimetric thermoporometry to investigate the biomass nanostructural changes promoted by hydrothermal conditions. We compare and differentiate the rind and pith fractions of sugarcane stalks in order to contribute to the understanding of rind-pith contrasting recalcitrance. Moreover, for both cane fractions our results point consistently to cellulose… More
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  • Pulp and Paper from Sugarcane: Properties of Rind and Core Fractions
  • Abstract Two distinct lignocellulosic fractions (rind and core) can be obtained through a physical separation of sugarcane stalks. Although presenting differences in morphology, both fractions can be employed to produce pulps and papers. The pulps and paper sheets produced from the core and rind fractions were characterized by their chemical composition, physical properties and mechanical properties. The pulps obtained from the core presented a higher amount of fines, lower drainage ability and rendered denser and stiffer sheets. The pulps from the rind, which have a higher content of fibers and higher degree of polymerization, produced sheets with higher air permeability and… More
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  • Saccharification of Sugarcane Bagasse Using an Enzymatic Extract Produced by Aspergillus fumigatus
  • Abstract This study investigates the efficiency of a crude enzymatic extract produced by Aspergillus fumigatus SCBM6 by solid state fermentation (SSF) in the hydrolysis of alkali pretreated sugarcane bagasse (PTB). After SSF using in natura sugarcane bagasse (SCB), the enzymatic extract presented 21.33 U.g–1 of β-glucosidase and 544.46 U.g–1of xylanase. The alkaline pretreatment with sodium hydroxide (2% NaOH (w/v) removed 43% of the lignin from PTB and the cellulosic fraction increased to 75%. The hydrolysis was optimized as a function of time, temperature, and concentration of PTB. After hydrolysis, the maximum yield (30.05%) of total released reducing sugars (TRS) was obtained… More
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  • Influence of Sugarcane Bagasse Fiber Size on Biodegradable Composites of Thermoplastic Starch
  • Abstract Although thermoplastic starch (TPS) is biodegradable, its low mechanical resistance limits its wide application. Sugarcane bagasse (SB) fibers can be used as reinforcement in TPS matrix composites, but the influence of fiber size on the properties of the composite is still unknown. In this study, TPS composites reinforced with SB short fibers of four sizes were processed and characterized in order to analyze the influence of fiber size on the mechanical properties of the TPS/SB composite. It was observed that the interaction between fiber and matrix was good and optimized when the fibers are sifted in sieves between 30 and… More
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  • Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Sugarcane Biomass and Heat Integration as Enhancers of Ethanol Production
  • Abstract The aim of this study is to assess the possibility of increasing ethanol production by introducing the bagasse hydrolysis process into conventional distilleries. Simulations were performed for mass and energy balances using Aspen Plus® software. It was assumed that sugarcane trash and lignin cake—hydrolysis process residues—are available as supplementary fuel. Several cases were evaluated, including: (a) conventional ethanol distillery, (b) conventional plant combined with a hydrolysis process without heat integration, with different solid contents in the hydrolysis reactor, and (c) conventional plant combined with the hydrolysis process applying heat integration by pinch analysis. The highest ethanol yield was achieved in… More
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  • Microfibrillated Cellulose from Sugarcane Bagasse as a Biorefinery Product for Ethanol Production
  • Abstract Research involving the preparation of microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) from sugarcane bagasse is a relevant topic to the production of new nanomaterials and more accessible cellulose substrates for the production of second generation ethanol. Regarding the transformation of cellulose into glucose, the precursor of second generation ethanol, this nanosized cellulosic substrate represents a more appropriate material for the chemical hydrolysis process. The high aspect ratio of MFC improves hydrolysis, requiring mild conditions and decreasing the generation of by-products. Here, MFC was prepared from sugarcane bagasse by ultrasound defibrillation. This material was oxidized with 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl (TEMPO) to produce negatively charged high defibrillated… More
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  • Enzymatic Conversion of Sugarcane Lignocellulosic Biomass as a Platform for the Production of Ethanol, Enzymes and Nanocellulose
  • Abstract The conversion of sugarcane lignocellulosic biomass into fuels, chemicals and high-value materials using the biochemical pathway is considered the most sustainable alternative for the implementation of future biorefineries. Actually, the first large-scale cellulosic ethanol plants that have started operating worldwide apply the enzymatic hydrolysis process to convert biomass into simple sugars that are fermented to ethanol by yeasts. However, several technological challenges still need to be addressed in order to obtain commercially competitive products. This review describes current challenges and perspectives regarding the enzymatic hydrolysis step for processing sugarcane lignocellulosic biomass within the biorefinery. Recent developments in terms of process… More
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