||CMES: Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol. 57, No. 3, pp. 245-278, 2010
||Full length paper in PDF format. Size = 5,376,813 bytes
||3D-X-FEM; cracking; concrete structures; hygro-mechanical coupling; porous materials
||A three-dimensional numerical model based on the Extended Finite Element Method (X-FEM) is presented for the simulation of cohesive cracks in cementitious materials, such as concrete, in a hygro-mechanical framework. Enhancement functions for the small scale resolution of the displacement jump across cracks in the context of the X-FEM is used in conjunction with a higher order family of hierarchical shape functions for the representation of the large scale displacement field of the investigated structure. Besides the theoretical and computational formulation in a multiphase context, aspects of the implementation, such as integration and crack tracking algorithms, are discussed. Representative numerical examples include 3D benchmark problems, an analysis of anchor pullout test and an application of the model to a hygro-mechanically loaded concrete beam.