In Vivo/Ex Vivo MRI-Based 3D Non-Newtonian FSI Models for Human Atherosclerotic Plaques Compared with Fluid/Wall-Only Models
Chun Yang; Dalin Tang; Chun Yuan; Thomas S. Hatsukami; Jie Zheng; and Pamela K. Woodard

doi:10.3970/cmes.2007.019.233
Source CMES: Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol. 19, No. 3, pp. 233-246, 2007
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Keywords Finite element method, artery, blood flow, fluid-structure interaction, atherosclerosis.
Abstract It has been recognized that fluid-structure interactions (FSI) play an important role in cardiovascular disease initiation and development. However, in vivo MRI multi-component FSI models for human carotid atherosclerotic plaques with bifurcation and quantitative comparisons of FSI models with fluid-only or structure-only models are currently lacking in the literature. A 3D non-Newtonian multi-component FSI model based on in vivo/ex vivo MRI images for human atherosclerotic plaques was introduced to investigate flow and plaque stress/strain behaviors which may be related to plaque progression and rupture. Both artery wall and plaque components were assumed to be hyperelastic, isotropic, incompressible and homogeneous. Blood flow was assumed to be laminar, non-Newtonian, viscous and incompressible. In vivo/ex vivo MRI images were acquired using histologically-validated multi-spectral MRI protocols. The 3D FSI models were solved and results were compared with those from a Newtonian FSI model and wall-only/fluid-only models. A 145{\%} difference in maximum principal stresses (Stress-P$_{1})$ between the FSI and wall-only models and 40{\%} difference in flow maximum shear stress (MSS) between the FSI and fluid-only models were found at the throat of the plaque using a severe plaque sample (70{\%} severity by diameter). Flow maximum shear stress (MSS) from the rigid wall model is much higher (20-40{\%} in maximum MSS values, 100-150{\%} in stagnation region) than those from FSI models.
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